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Public Communications by Fusion Representatives:
The Effects of the Confusion

By Steven B. Krivit

Return to ITER Power Facts Main Page

 

How did people come to believe that a design for a zero-net-Watt experimental nuclear fusion reactor would produce 500 million Watts of power?

SUMMARY
The proponents of ITER, the publicly funded International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor, claim the device is the way to a future of virtually limitless carbon-free energy from nuclear fusion.

ITER is designed to accomplish a scientifically significant result, the production of particles from nuclear fusion that have a total of 500 million Watts of power. If it succeeds, that result will also show that the reactor can produce the same amount of overall power that it consumes. In other words, it would demonstrate a net overall reactor output of zero Watts. However, ITER was universally misunderstood by the public, news media, and government officials as an overall reactor system that would produce a potentially usable thermal power output of 500 million Watts. How did this misunderstanding happen?

This page shows the EFFECTS.
Click here to see the CAUSES.

 

Academia (Alphabetical)


Columbia University
"Overall, ITER aims to produce 500 MW of power from a 50 MW investment. If this were to occur, it would clearly be a great success for the international scientific community involved in these efforts – it would be the first demonstration of a fusion reactor which produces net power. This achievement would also pave the way to a commercialization of this technology in the near future. ITER is scheduled to be completed by 2019, which entails that fusion could be used as a method to produce electricity for the public by 2050."
Link to source
Eindhoven University of Technology
"The worldwide collaboration on the development of nuclear fusion as a safe, clean and inexhaustible energy source is now culminating in the construction of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). Located in southern France, ITER will demonstrate 10-fold power multiplication at the 500 MW level."
Link to source

Georgia State University (Hyperphysics, a project of Carl Rod Nave, Department of Physics and Astronomy)
"The design goal is to produce 500 MW of output power for 50 MW of input power, or a tenfold yield. This reactor would then form the model for the construction of commercial power reactors."
Link to source


Harvard University Link (Ernesto Mazzucato, Principal Research Physicist, Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (Mazzucato got it right.)
"ITER will produce 500 megawatt (MW) of fusion power, equivalent – we are told – to a tenfold gain (defined as the ratio between the total fusion power and the external power needed for heating the fuel). Unfortunately, 20% of these 500 MW (they used to be 410 before miraculously growing to 500) will be trapped into the reactor chamber. ITER doesn’t plan to transform the remaining 400 MW into usable energy, i.e., electricity. However, even if it did, it could generate – to be generous – no more than 160 MW, less than the electric power needed for its operation. Conclusion: the real gain of ITER, i.e., the ratio between output and input electric powers, is smaller than one." (Written in 2006)
Link to source


Lodz University of Technology (Bartosz Sakowicz, student) — June 8, 2014
"Build 500 MW fusion reactor, input power 50 MW (Q=10 means output power equals 10 times input power)"

Lodz University of Technology (Dariusz Makowski, professor) — April 6, 2019
"In case of ITER, by delivering 50 MW, it’s planned to obtain about 500 MW of energy. However, in the future this efficiency can be significantly increased. I think that thermonuclear fusion will produce as much - or more energy - than the current nuclear power plants.”


Massachusetts Institute of Technology — June 17, 2012
"ITER is designed to produce output of 500MW from input of 50MW, and prove fusion power’s feasibility."
Link to source


Open University
"One of the main challenges in the development of fusion is creating a reactor that is commercially viable. At the moment, the fusion at JET can only occur for a matter of seconds. The energy achieved is about the same as that put in, to achieve the contained plasma or a little more. This means that the tokamak at JET is not commercially viable. The successor to JET is ITER, a new tokamak that is being built in France. This should be able to produce 500 MW of electricity."
Link to source


Politecnico di Torino (Rosario Bellaera, student) — July 2018
"The input power of ITER will be of 50 megawatts and the design output power is set to 500 MW. Nevertheless, no electricity will be generated with ITER."
Link to source

Princeton University (Luca Comisso, postdoctoral researcher) — Dec. 16, 2016
LC: ITER will produce 500 MW of fusion power starting from about 2025.
SK: How much total input power will the entire reactor require to produce that 500 MW?
LC: One tenth, i.e., 50 MW.


Princeton University
"ITER should produce 500 megawatts of fusion power for 400 seconds with only 50 megawatts of input power."
Link to source
Princeton University (repeated here)
"The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) is a 35-country collaboration designed to build a 500-MW fusion plant in southern France, which is slated to be the first fusion experiment to produce more energy than it consumes."
Link to source
Saskatchewan, University of
"The aim of ITER is to generate 500 megawatts of fusion power from 50 MW of input power. The ITER experiment isn’t designed to turn that energy into electricity, but to open the door for reactors that can."
Link to source
Stanford University (Zach Herrera, student) — April 26, 2013
"ITER is planned to generate 500 MW of power using an input of 50 MW, which is spent on heating the plasma and maintaining the magnetic fields."
Link to source
Stanford University (Henry Hirshland, student) June 23, 2017
"The ITER Tokamak is designed to produce 500 megawatts of output power, while needing 50 megawatts of power to operate. This means the machine would be producing more energy through the fusion process than the amount of energy needed to run the machine, creating a net positive amount of energy. This is something that has yet to be achieved by any reactor. This would be a groundbreaking development."
Link to source
Stanford University (Miguel Ayala, student) — Jan. 28, 2019
"[SPARC] will produce 100 MW of energy in 10 second pulses. Initial estimates indicate that this is double the required input energy - a net gain in energy. ... [ITER] is expected to generate in excess of 500 MW during pulses of 10 min."

Technical University of Kosice (Martin Marci)
"The fusion reactor (fig. 4) itself has been designed to produce 500 MW of output power for 50 MW of input power, or ten times the amount of energy put in."
Link to Source


Flávia Torres, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora — 2012
"ITER will be ready in 8 years time, it’s expected to produce ten times more energy than it consumes."


 

Industry (Alphabetical)


Air Liquide Web page — Jan. 30, 2018
"[The ITER] project takes on the scientific and technical challenge of demonstrating that a fusion power plant could potentially generate 10 times more energy than it consumes."
Link to source
Atkins Company Web Site — March 17, 2015
"ITER will produce 500MW of power for 50MW input - current record is 16MW."
PDF Download Sept. 3, 2018
Link to source

On Sept. 5, 2018, I wrote to Richard Lyall, ATKINS Nuclear Major Projects Director. He removed both false claims.

Atkins Company Web Site — Oct. 21, 2018
PDF Download Oct. 21, 2018
Link to source


Atkins Announcement about Presentation for Investors — Oct. 2, 2014
Link to source

Atkins Presentation for Investors — Oct. 2, 2014

"ITER produces 500 MW of output power for 50MW of input (Q=10). Current record 16MW."
Link to source

General Atomics — Dec. 6, 2017
"[ITER is] a project to prove that fusion power can be produced on a commercial scale and is sustainable."
Archive Copy


New England Wire — Jan. 4, 2020
"The energy used to heat hydrogen into a plasma comes from the French electrical grid, which will deliver some 50 MW into ITER. Once hydrogen transforms into a plasma and fusion begins, ITER is expected to deliver 500 MW of energy."
Link to source


NTT Press Release — May 15, 2020
"The ITER project, which has the objective of building the world’s first experimental hydrogen fusion reactor. "

"'Under this agreement, we will work closely with the ITER Organization to demonstrate the feasibility of fusion power at an industrial scale for the first time in human history.' Jun Sawada, President & CEO, NTT”


Peregrine — Jan. 4, 2020
"The objective of ITER is to produce a sustained fusion reaction, one that generates 500 megawatts of energy from 50 megawatts of input power. This is a significant leap beyond current facilities that are designed around a Tokomak chamber. In comparison, the last major fusion project JET standing for the Joint European Tours, produced only about 16 megawatts of power for a fraction of a second."
Link to source


Vinci Construction — Jan. 4, 2020
Original: "ITER a pour ambition de produire 10 fois plus d’énergie qu’il n’en faut pour déclencher la réaction de fusion nucléaire. Précisément, pour 50 mégawatts électriques consommés, il devra restituer 500 MW thermiques."

English Translation: "ITER aims to produce 10 times more energy than it takes to trigger the nuclear fusion reaction. specifically, for 50 megawatts of electricity consumed, it will have to restore 500 MW of thermal energy."
Link to source


Christian Shelton / KHL — Aug. 10, 2020
"ITER is expected to demonstrate how electricity can be generated with the help of nuclear fusion."


 

Government Agencies and Elected Officials (Alphabetical)


AUSTRIA

Austrian Chamber of Commerce — Dec. 10, 2007
"[ITER] will reach industrial size with a capacity of 500 MW. ... The energy consumption will be 50 MW, the output ten times."
Link to source


CEA

The French government's Commission Nationale du Débat Public facilitated a local public debate in the area where ITER was to be built. Members of the commission consulted with the CEA (Commissariat à l'énergie atomique, French Atomic Energy Commission) to help develop some of the documents. The first entry is from a document written by the CEA, and is scientifically correct, though dependent on nuances that would only be understood by a fusion expert.

Commissariat à l'Énergie Atomique (CEA) — Jan. 1, 2006
Original: Avec ITER, l’objectif est de générer une puissance de fusion de 500 Mégawatts (MW) en en injectant 50 durant plus de 6 minutes, soit un coefficient d’amplification de la puissance égal à 10. A titre de comparaison, le JET est parvenu à un record de puissance de fusion de 16 MW avec 25 MW injectés, soit un coefficient d’amplification de la puissance de 0,64.
Link to source

English: With ITER, the objective is to generate 500 megawatts (MW) of fusion power by injecting 50 for more than 6 minutes, or an amplification coefficient of the power equal to 10. For comparison, JET achieved a power record of 16 MW of fusion with 25 MW injected, i.e. a power amplification coefficient 0.64.

The next document was written by the Commission Nationale du Débat Public. Their writers were not as technical as those of the CEA. These writers missed key nuances and inadvertently published false claims.

Commission Nationale du Débat Public — June 30, 2006
Original: "L’objectif final affiché est de générer une puissance de 500 MW durant plus de six minutes à partir d’une puissance de 50 MW."
Link to source

English: "The final objective displayed is to generate a power of 500 MW for more than six minutes from a power of 50 MW."


EUROPEAN COMMISSION

European Commission Memo — March 7, 2002
"The Commission will present a proposal that it adopted on 27 February 2002. The objective is to conclude an agreement with the objective of building a thermonuclear fusion reactor capable of producing energy at an industrial scale (1,500 MW)."
Link to source


European Commission Press Release May 13, 2003
"ITER will have to attain, study and control a particular state of matter ("plasma") from which fusion power of about 500 million watts will be released. For the first time ever, this power will greatly exceed, by a factor 10, the power injected into the plasma."
Link to source

Statement is techniically accurate and transparent.


European Commission Report — May 13, 2003
"ITER, based on the tokamak” concept, will be the first fusion device to produce 500 MW of thermal power, similar to the level of a commercial power station."


The Engineer — May 28, 2004
"The plan is for a 500W reactor capable of producing 10 times more energy than is required to achieve fusion."


European Commission "Fusion Research: An Energy Option for Europe's Future" — Oct. 18, 2004
"[JET] achieved world record results with 16 MW of fusion power in 1997. ...ITER will be capable of generating 400 MW of fusion power for a duration of 6 minutes."


European Commission "ITER Uniting Science Today Global Energy Tomorrow" — 2007
"[ITER will be] capable of generating some 500 million watts (MW) of fusion power continuously for up to 10 minutes. It will be 30 times more powerful than the Joint European Torus (JET)."
Link to source


European Commission "ITER Uniting Science Today Global Energy Tomorrow" — 2007
Page 13: "[ITER will be] capable of generating 500 megawatts of fusion power continuously for at least 400 seconds. The plasma volume will be 10 times that of JET and will be close to the size of future commercial reactors. ... The ITER experiment will generate 10 times more power than is required to produce and heat the initial hydrogen plasma." Archive Copy


European Commission Press Release — May 5, 2010
"ITER will be capable of generating 500 million watts (MW) of fusion power."
Archive Copy


European Commission "2011 Technology Map" 2011
"ITER will be the first fusion experiment to produce power gain, aiming for ten times more fusion power than input power into the plasma. Although the fusion power in ITER should reach some 500 MW for hundreds of seconds at a time, the investment required to produce very limited amounts of electricity is not worthwhile."


[Note: The following set of entries are directly related. In 2012, the European Fusion Development Agreement (EFDA) published a "Roadmap" outlining Europe's approach to fusion. The authors, Francesco Romanelli, Derek Stork, Rudolf Neu, Gianfranco Federici, Pietro Barabaschi, Lorne D. Horton, Hartmut Zohm, and Duarte Borba, depicted ITER's primary objective like most of the fusion community did; in a way that would be easily misunderstood by and causing exaggerated expectations from non-experts. That is precisely what happened when Petra Nieckchen, the spokesperson for EFDA wrote her press release about the Roadmap.

These three items show a concise model of the typical chain of events for the entire ITER communication failure: 1) A technical document written by fusion experts that is accurate only by way of technical nuance, 2) A press release by a public affairs officer that misses the nuance (yet the document was certainly reviewed for accuracy by the experts) and then 3) a typical (verbatim) news media report based on the press release.]

EFDA "Roadmap to the Realisation of Fusion Energy" — November 2012
"ITER, the world’s largest and most advanced fusion experiment, will be the first magnetic confinement device to produce a net surplus of fusion energy. It is designed to generate 500 MW fusion power which is equivalent to the capacity of a medium size power plant. As the injected power will be 50MW, this corresponds to a fusion gain Q=10. ITER will also demonstrate the main technologies for a fusion power plant."

EFDA Press Release — Jan. 16, 2013
"So far, fusion scientists have succeeded in generating fusion power, but the required energy input was greater than the output. The international experiment ITER, which starts operating in 2020, will be the first device to produce a net surplus of fusion power, namely 500 megawatts from a 50 megawatt input."
Link to source


European Commission 2013 Technology Map — Sept. 4, 2014
"Although the fusion power in ITER should reach some 500 MW for hundreds of seconds at a time, it will not generate electricity."


European Commission Press Release — Oct. 9, 2014
"[ITER] will be the first magnetic confined fusion device which will produce more power than put into it (it is expected to provide 10 times more power than put into it). "
Archive Copy


European Commission Horizon 2020 — July 28, 2015
"Ultimately, ITER will produce the same amount of power as a gas-fired power station (500 MW), albeit for only a few minutes. This would prove that fusion could be a commercially viable source of energy. Actual electricity generation for continuous periods will then be realised at the next stage in the quest for commercial fusion - DEMO - the demonstration fusion power plant."
Archive Copy


European Court of Auditors — Sept. 2016
"ITER's goals: 1) Produce 500 MW of fusion power. The world record for fusion power is held by the European tokamak JET. In 1997, JET produced 16 MW of fusion power from a total input power of 24 MW (Q=0.67). ITER is designed to produce a ten-fold return on energy (Q=10), or 500 MW of fusion power from 50 MW of input power. ITER will not capture the energy it produces as electricity, but—as the first of all fusion experiments in history to produce net energy gain—it will prepare the way for the machine that can."


European Commission Press Release — Oct. 27, 2016
"ITER fusion facility located in Cadarache, France, and the first in history to produce 500 MW. ... ITER will be the first fusion device to produce net energy, ie the energy created during a fusion plasma pulse will exceed the energy required to power the machine's systems.

This text is a derivative of text from the ITER Web site. The source text had initially said "the machine's systems (heating)" suggesting to less-expert readers by the use of parenthesis that the sentence could be accurate without the word heating. I contacted the Commission. It made a correction.

European Commission Press Release — Oct. 27, 2016 (Updated on Aug. 2, 2018)
"ITER fusion facility located in Cadarache, France, and the first in history to produce 500 MW. ... ITER is expected to produce during a fusion plasma pulse about ten times the input thermal power put into the plasma (estimated at
50 MW)."


European Commission Fusion Web Page — Feb. 16, 2018
"The international scientific community is now building ITER to show that fusion energy is possible at an industrial scale. ...ITER will be the first experiment to produce significant quantities of fusion energy, considerably more than required to operate the machine."
(Link to source)

I wrote to the Commission on Feb. 16, 2018. (changelog)


European Commission Fusion Web Page — April 6, 2018
"The international scientific community is now building ITER which will demonstrate the scientific and technological feasibility of fusion on Earth as a sustainable energy source. ITER will be the first experiment to generate up to 500 million watts (MW) of fusion power."
Link to source

I wrote to the Commission on April 4, 2019.

The European Contribution To ITER: Achievements And Challenges, report prepared for the European Commission — June 2018


European Commission Fusion Web Page — Oct. 29, 2019
ITER is of key importance in the roadmap, as it aims to prove the scientific and technological feasibility of fusion as a future energy source.
Link to source (New URL redirected from old URL)

European Commission "The Road to Fusion" — Oct. 29, 2019
"ITER’s goal is to prove that fusion power devices can feasibly produce energy that could be converted into electricity."
Link to source
European Commission Report "Supporting analysis for an impact assessment on the future funding of EU participation in ITER project and Broader Approach activities under the next MFF" — Report date: July 20, 2018; Retrieved May 28, 2020
"ITER aims to produce a significant amount of fusion power (500MW) for about seven minutes."
Link to source

European Commission News Story — July 28, 2015
"Ultimately, ITER will produce the same amount of power as a gas-fired power station (500 MW), albeit for only a few minutes. This would prove that fusion could be a commercially viable source of energy. Actual electricity generation for continuous periods will then be realised at the next stage in the quest for commercial fusion – DEMO – the demonstration fusion power plant."
Link to source


European Commission "ITER Uniting science today, global energy tomorrow"— Aug. 14, 2017
"In 1991, JET was the first tokamak in the world to achieve a significant amount of controlled fusion power: 1.7 megawatts for about 2 seconds. And in 1997, running on deuterium-tritium fuel, JET established the current world record for fusion power of 16 MW for a limited duration, and 5 megawatts for 5 seconds."

"ITER will comprise a tokamak with superconducting electromagnets and other systems which make it capable of generating 500 megawatts of fusion power continuously for at least 400 seconds."

"The ITER experiment will generate ten times more power than is required to produce and heat the initial hydrogen plasma."

"ITER is planned to operate at a nominal fusion thermal power of 500 megawatts. Assuming that DEMO will be approximately of a similar physical size to ITER, its fusion thermal power level must be greater by about a factor of three in order to deliver ( at current levels of turbine efficiencies ) electrical power to the grid in the range of 500 megawatts [electric.]"


European Commission ITER Industry Day, Draft Program — Nov. 20, 2017
"By producing 500 MW of power from an input of 50 MW — a gain factor of 10 — ITER will be the stepping stone for future demonstration of the feasibility of fusion power plants."

Nobody noticed any problem with the draft program and it was published unchanged.

European Commission ITER Industry Day, Final Program — Dec. 5, 2017
"By producing 500 MW of power from an input of 50 MW — a gain factor of 10 — ITER will be the stepping stone for future demonstration of the feasibility of fusion power plants."


EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT

Briefing Prepared for Members of the European Parliament — Sept. 28, 2011
"[JET's] best result in this was in 1997 when, for two seconds, 16 megawatts of output was achieved for 25 megawatts of input. ... No fusion machines — since the first machine constructed in the 1950s — have produced meaningful amounts of electricity so far, although megawatts of power have been produced for a few seconds. ... Plasma experiments at ITER a plan to begin in 2019. A fusion reaction to produce 500 megawatts of output power for 50 megawatts of input power is planned by 2026. ... ITER aims to demonstrate the commercial viability of fusion." Link to source


European Parliament: "The Impact of Brexit on the EU Energy System" November 2017
(Page 78) "ITER is designed to produce 500 MW of fusion power from 50 MW of input power, i.e., a tenfold return on energy."
Link to source


European Parliamentary Research Service Briefing "How the EU Budget is Spent"— Sept. 2017 (as of Dec. 27, 2017)
"While JET has produced a quantity of 16 MW of fusion power from a total input power of 24 MW (i.e., 0.67 MW of output per MW of input, or Q=0.67), ITER is designed to produce 500 MW of fusion power from 50 MW of input power (Q=10), or a tenfold return on energy."
Link to source

I wrote to EPRS and encouraged them to make corrections.

European Parliamentary Research Service Briefing "How the EU Budget is Spent" — Sept. 2017 (as of April 3, 2018)
"While JET has produced a quantity of 16 MW of fusion power from a total input power of 24 MW (i.e. 0.67 MW of output per MW of input, or Q=0.67), ITER is designed to produce 500 MW of output thermal power compared to 50 MW of input thermal power required to heat the plasma, which means an amplification factor of Q=10.
(Link to source)

I wrote to EPRS again and encouraged them to make corrections.

European Parliamentary Research Service Briefing "How the EU Budget is Spent" — Sept. 2017 (as of June 25, 2018)
"While JET has produced a quantity of 16 MW of output thermal power with an input thermal power of 24 MW (i.e. 0.67 MW of output per MW of input, or Q=0.67), ITER is designed to produce 500 MW of output thermal power compared to 50 MW of input thermal power required to heat the plasma, which means an amplification factor of Q=10."
Link to source


GERMANY

German Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs, Report of the Federal Government on Energy Research — 2014
"ITER is to be the first reactor that will reach the 500 MW range using fusion power, delivering ten times more energy than is needed to heat the plasma, and therefore it should demonstrate the feasibility of controlled terrestrial energy from fusion processes."


IRAN

Atomic Energy Organization of Iran — Nov. 5, 2016
"Based on the general understanding between Iran and France the two countries are going to cooperate in setting up Iran's first thermonuclear experimental reactor that is expected to produce 500 megawatts of electricity."


SWITZERLAND

Simon Bradley / SWISSINFO — Oct. 13, 2008
"The principal goal of ITER is to generate 500 megawatts of fusion power for periods of 300 to 500 seconds with an input power of 50 megawatts."
Link to source


Swiss Government, Secretariat for Education, Research and Innovation — September 2018
"[ITER's] main objective is to demonstrate the efficiency of nuclear fusion as the new energy source of the future. ... [ITER's] aim is to display the energy efficiency of fusion by achieving a Q-value of 10, i.e. to generate 500 MW of energy from a mere 50 MW fed in as heat."
Link to source

UNITED KINGDOM

U.K. Parliamentary Office of Science and Technology — 2003
"Breakeven: when the total output power equals the total input power. The ratio of these two quantities is known as ‘Q’. Breakeven was demonstrated at the JET experiment in the UK in 1997."


U.K. Government Office for Science "Technology and Innovation Futures" 2012
"ITER is designed to produce 500 megawatts of fusion power and provide the evidence to define the parameters for a viable fusion power plant."


Research Councils U. K. — August 2015
"ITER will be the first device to release reactor-relevant fusion power (- 500MW for hundreds of seconds). ... In 1997 JET produced 16MW of fusion power from a total input of 24MW).


U.K. Department for Business Innovation and Skills "Triennial Review of the UK Atomic Energy Authority September 2015
"[ITER] will be the first device to release reactor-relevant fusion power (~500MW for hundreds of seconds). ... JET is the only device currently capable of generating significant fusion reactions in the world (in 1997 JET produced 16MW of fusion power from a total input of 24MW)."


UNITED STATES

Senator J. Bennett Johnston (D-LA) / U.S. Senate — March 24, 1993
"ITER is expected to embody most of the features of a fusion power plant. ITER is being designed to produce 1,000 megawatts of energy, which is about half of that produced by an average-sized conventional electric power plant. The purpose of ITER is to demonstrate the scientific and technical feasibility of magnetic fusion energy and to prove that a sustained fusion reaction can be maintained at an energy level sufficient to generate electricity in commercial quantities." (See also full hearing)


Senator Bill Bradley (D-NJ) / U.S. Senate — May 6, 1993
"In 1970, the most fusion power that could be produced in experiments was 100th of a watt. That was in 1970. In 1991, the Joint European Torus JET achieved an output of almost 2 million watts. When Princeton's Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor is fueled with deuterium and tritium, it is likely that an output of 5 to 10 million watts will be achieved. So from 100th of a watt in 1970 to 10 million watts in 1993. And if we pursue the construction of ITER, we can look forward to a capability of producing 1 billion watts of fusion power by around 2005 to 2010. That is what to me is a startling prospect and a prospect that I think has international significance."


President George W. Bush — Jan. 30, 2003
"If successful, ITER would create the first fusion device capable of producing thermal energy comparable to the output of a power plant, making commercially viable fusion power available as soon as 2050."


Congressman Brian Baird / U.S. House of Representatives — Oct. 29, 2009
"In Cadarache, France, the large international fusion project called ITER is about to begin construction. This experiment is designed to produce five times more energy than it consumes for several consecutive hours."


Representative Eric Swalwell Jr. (D-CA) / U.S. House of Representatives — July 11, 2014
"Now is the right time to build and operate experiments that can finally demonstrate that a man-made fusion system can consistently produce far more energy than it takes to fuel. For the magnetic fusion approach, the next episode clearly is ITER. ITER is designed to produce at least 10 times the energy it consumes."


Representative Eddie Bernice Johnson Texas (D-TX) / U.S. House of Representatives — July 11, 2014
"The ITER project is the next and largest step toward this goal. For more than 50 years, scientists at our top universities, national labs and in the private sector, as part of a truly global research community, have been conducting experiments to perform research that has brought the team to a point where they are confident it is now possible to actually build a full-scale test reactor that produces far more energy than it uses."


New Jersey Senator Joe Pennacchio / Press Release — May 5, 2019
"[ITER has] the goal of generating “net energy” 10x the input — 500 MW generated in a tokamak fusion device from 50 MW input."


 

Energy Organizations (Alphabetical)

FORO NUCLEAR — Dec. 16, 2018
"ITER will be the first fusion device with net energy (meaning that it will produce more energy than that which is absorbed by the system's operation) ... In 1997 JET produced 16 MW of fusion energy. ITER is designed to produce 500 MW."
Link to source


Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire — June 12, 2018
"500 MW of energy produced: ITER has been designed to produce 500 MW of energy from an external energy input of 50 MW, in other words to generate ten times the input power. The fusion power record, held by the European JET tokamak in the United Kingdom, is 16 MW."
Link to source

On June 17, 2018, I wrote to Jean-Christophe Niel, IRSN Director General.

Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire — June 22, 2018
"500 MW of energy produced: ITER has been designed to produce 500 MW of thermal energy from an external thermal energy input of 50 MW in its heating systems. The fusion power record, held by the European JET tokamak in the United Kingdom, is 16 MW."
Link to source


IAEA Newsletter — March 2006
"ITER is the first fusion experiment that produces up to 500 MW net thermal power output for long-standing pulses of hundreds of seconds, up to steady-state operation."
Link to source


IAEA Annual Report 2001 — July 2002
"The world’s leading fusion scientists and engineers completed a detailed engineering design for the 500 MW International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), which will demonstrate the scientific and technological feasibility of fusion energy."


IAEA News Article — December 2002
"Under ideal conditions ITER will be able to produce ten times more power through the fusion process than is input into the plasma from outside (i.e. 500 megawatts produced from 50 megawatts input)."


IAEA News Article — May 11, 2018
"[ITER] is expected to demonstrate by the late 2030s that fusion can be used to generate net energy, i.e. produce more energy than supplied to it to feed the reactor."


IAEA Fusion FAQ Web Page
"At present, fusion devices produce more than ten megawatts of fusion power. ITER will be capable of producing 500 megawatts of fusion power. Although this will be on the scale needed for a power station, there are still some technological issues to address before a commercial power plant can operate."


IAEA Fusion Web Page
"The reactor is designed to achieve a fusion power gain of at least 10 and produce 500 Megawatt (MW) of fusion power."


International Energy Agency (IEA) Tokamak Web Page — June 12, 2018
"ITER is expected to produce approximately 500 MW of electricity from an input of 50 MW."
Former link

On June 17, 2018, I wrote to Fatih Birol, executive director of IEA. The page was stripped and later removed.

International Energy Agency (IEA) Tokamak Web Page — Nov. 1, 2018
Former link


World Nuclear Association — Feb 13, 2016
"The goal of ITER is to operate at 500 MWt (for at least 400 seconds continuously) with less than 50 MW of input power, a 10-fold energy gain."
Link to source

[A year later they made the already-false statement more ambiguous by removing the indicator that the expected output measurement is a thermal value.]

World Nuclear Association - ITER Paragraph — July 29, 2017
"The goal of ITER is to operate at 500 MW (for at least 400 seconds continuously) with less than 50 MW of input power, a 10-fold energy gain."
Link to source

On Oct. 13, 2017, I sent an e-mail to Agneta Rising, the director-general of the World Nuclear Association, and notified her of the false statements. One of her staff members replied to me and said they would attend to the matter in the following week. They didn't.

On Nov. 8, 2017, after Rising's staff had made no corrections, I sent another e-mail to Rising and informed her that the ITER organization had made some corrections to its Web site. Rising thanked me for the information and made no corrections.

On Nov. 28, 2017, I sent another e-mail to Rising and I suggested corrective text. Her staff made corrections to the WNA Web site the next day.

World Nuclear Association - ITER Paragraph — Nov. 29, 2017
"The goal of ITER is to operate at 500 MW (for at least 400 seconds continuously) with less than 50 MW of plasma heating power input. It appears that an additional 250 MWe of electricity may be required in operation."
Link to source

That became an accurate statement. On Dec. 11, 2017, I published a new report, "Evidence of the ITER Power Deception," listing, among other items, this Nov. 29, 2017, correction by WNA. Nine days later, on Dec. 20, 2107, as shown below, WNA removed the sentence about the full input power requirement for ITER. This was my first indicator that the fusion community was going to suppress the actual amount of power required to operate the ITER reactor.

World Nuclear Association - ITER Paragraph — Dec. 20-21 2017
"The goal of ITER is to operate at 500 MW (for at least 400 seconds continuously) with less than 50 MW of plasma heating power input."
Link to source

[The statement now became misleading because the reactor will not be able to operate with less than 300 MW of electrical input. On Dec. 20, 2017, I sent an e-mail to Rising and informed her that, if she was not going to inform readers of the full input power requirement for the reactor, then she must inform readers that she is giving values of only the plasma thermal output and plasma thermal input. Her staff fixed the WNA Web site within 48 hours.

World Nuclear Association - ITER Paragraph Dec. 22, 2017
"The goal of ITER is to operate with a plasma thermal output of 500 MW (for at least 400 seconds continuously) with less than 50 MW of plasma heating power input."
Link to source

This is an accurate statement.

 

Wikipedia Pages


Wikipedia English ITER Page — March 2, 2010
"ITER is designed to produce approximately 500 MW of fusion power sustained for up to 1,000 seconds. ... ITER is expected to produce (in the form of heat) 5-10 times more energy than the amount consumed to heat up the plasma to fusion temperatures."
Link to source

The 2010 version was mostly accurate. However, it implied that the amount of power to be consumed to heat the plasma will be 50 MW, when the actual projected input power is 150 MW. A year later, the details about heat input and output were removed, leaving in place a false impression that the reactor, rather than the plasma, would produce the 10-fold gain.

Wikipedia English ITER Page — March 1, 2011
"The fusion reactor itself has been designed to produce 500 MW of output power for 50 MW of input power, or 10 times the amount of energy put in."
Link to source

The statement remained essentially the same for six years.

Wikipedia English ITER Page — Nov. 25, 2017
"The ITER fusion reactor has been designed to produce 500 megawatts of output power for around 20 minutes while needing 50 megawatts to operate."
Link to source

On Nov. 26, 2017, I corrected the statement.

Wikipedia English ITER Page — Nov. 26, 2017
"The ITER fusion reactor has been designed to produce a fusion plasma equivalent to 500 megawatts of thermal output power for around 20 minutes while 50 megawatts of thermal power are injected into the tokamak, resulting in a 10-fold gain of plasma heating power."
Link to source


 

News Publications (Chronological)

Jeremy Bernstein (Professor of physics at the Stevens Institute of Technology) / New York Times — Jan. 2, 1982
"The Joint European Torus at Culham, England, to begin operations in 1983 - has been designed to produce more than 30 million watts. In terms of the need for practical power generation, this is far from enough. (By comparison, a typical modern nuclear fission plant produces something like a billion watts of power, in other words, enough power to light, say, 10 million 100-watt lightbulbs while the plant is running.)"


Bill Broad / New York Times — July 28, 1992
"Late last year, scientists at the Joint European Torus, an experimental fusion reactor in Oxfordshire, England, produced a significant amount of power from controlled fusion for the first time. The research team calculated that its reactor had yielded 1.5 million to 2 million watts in a pulse lasting two seconds. That success came after nearly half a century of worldwide effort and the expenditure of many billions of dollars. ITER would be the first machine in the world to go beyond short bursts of controlled fusion to operate continuously. Scientists hope that it would pave the way for practical reactors producing a new kind of nuclear energy -- safe, cheap and nearly limitless."

Malcolm Brown /New York Times — Dec. 10, 1996
"If successful, the reactor would ignite a fusion reaction and produce up to 1.5 billion watts of power, demonstrating the feasibility of exploiting hydrogen fusion for large-scale power generation."

ITER was originally designed for a target of 1,500 MW gross thermal output.


Malcolm Brown / New York Times — May 20, 1997
"ITER, a $10 billion project intended to demonstrate by the year 2008 that hydrogen isotope fusion, a process somewhat similar to that which powers the sun, could be a commercially practical source of energy."

 


 

 

Charles Seife and Peter Hadfield /New Scientist — Oct. 17, 1998


Source: New Scientist, Oct. 17, 1998

Graph shows that output of JET was equivalent to the power required for a house; and output of ITER will be equivalent to the power required for a working fusion power plant.


Mark Anderson / Wired — Oct. 31, 2001
"ITER is planned to be the first ever to produce power at the level of a commercial power station."
Link to source

Eugenie Samuel / New Scientist — July 11, 2001
"The goal of fusion research is a reactor that produces much more energy than the large amounts needed to run it. The experimental tokamaks that exist around the world, such as the Joint European Torus (JET) reactor at Culham near Oxford, have to date not progressed far beyond the break-even point."


Robert Stern / New York Times — Jan. 31, 2003
"ITER would provide a record 500 megawatts of fusion power for at least 500 seconds, a little more than eight minutes, during each experiment. That would meet the power needs of about 140,000 homes."


Elizabeth Clements / Fermi News — May 9, 2003
"If successful, ITER would produce 500 megawatts of fusion power for 500 seconds or longer ... the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, one of ITER’s predecessors that shut down in 1997, produced a maximum of 11 megawatts for only one-third of a second ... ITER would be the first magnetic confinement fusion experiment to produce burning plasma. The reaction would produce ten times the amount of external power injected into it."


Declan Butler / Nature — June 29, 2005
"If all goes well, it will be the first fusion experiment that generates more energy than it uses."


Charles Arthur / The Register — July 6, 2005
"If it works, ITER will take in 50 megawatts of power and put out between 500 and 1,000 MW. That's right - it could power itself. ... Although the Joint European Torus project in Abingdon, Oxfordshire, managed to generate 80 percent of the power put into it - falling just short of being self-sustaining - it demonstrated what could be done."
Link to source


Craig Freudenrich, Ph.D. / How Stuff Works — Aug. 11, 2005
"The power needed to start the fusion reaction will be about 70 megawatts, but the power yield from the reaction will be about 500 megawatts."
Link to source


TIMELINE NOTE: The "Agreement on the Establishment of the ITER International Fusion Energy Organization for the Joint Implementation of the ITER Project," for which the Director General of the IAEA is depositary, was signed in Paris on Nov. 21, 2006.


Daniel Clery / Science — Oct. 13, 2006
"The Joint European Torus (JET) in Abingdon, U.K., the biggest existing tokamak, managed to produce 16 megawatts, but that was only 65% of the power used to keep the reaction running. ... ITER aims to produce 500 megawatts of power, 10 times the amount needed to keep it running. German physicist Norbert Holtkamp says that ITER's goal of generating excess power is clear: 'Either it can do it, or it can't. If it fails, the tokamak is out.' ... Although there may be surprises along the way and whole new scenarios may have to be developed, few doubt that ITER will reach its goal of generating large amounts of excess power. But power is not much use commercially in bursts a few minutes long followed by a long wait while the reactor is reconfigured."


Erwin Boutsma / Technisch Weekblad — Oct. 20, 2006
"Iter promises to be the first fusion reactor to deliver more power than it needs to run: 500 MW for ten minutes, ten times more than what is put into it."


Hamish Johnston / Physics World — Nov. 21, 2006
"It is hoped that ITER will produce 500 MW of power to demonstrate that it is feasible to generate power from fusion."


ECONOMIST — Nov. 23, 2006
"Construction of the 500-megawatt reactor is expected to cost $6 billion and take a decade. Another $6 billion will be needed to operate it for 20 years. Even then the reactor will not be used to generate power. For safety reasons, the excess thermal energy produced will be released through cooling towers rather than harnessed to make electricity."


Geoff Brumfiel / Nature — Nov. 21, 2006
"ITER is a giant, €5 billion (US$6 billion) machine designed to prove that fusion power can work. It will use magnetic fields to confine hydrogen isotopes and heat them to hundreds of millions of degrees Celcius. If all goes well, the isotopes will fuse together — producing some 500 megawatts of power in the process."


The Economist — Nov. 23, 2006
"But getting more useful energy out of a machine than you put in has eluded the wit of man for 50 years—and a new move to throw more money at the problem marks political, not scientific, progress. ... Construction of the 500-megawatt reactor is expected to cost $6 billion and take a decade. Another $6 billion will be needed to operate it for 20 years. Even then the reactor will not be used to generate power. For safety reasons, the excess thermal energy produced will be released through cooling towers rather than harnessed to make electricity. So a commercial reactor is at least 30 years away, as remote a prospect as fusion wonks said it was 50 years ago. And the problem it aims to solve—safely producing power with renewable resources—is being tackled more cheaply in other ways."
Link to source

The Engineer — Feb. 12, 2007
"If ITER achieves self-sustaining fusion, the low power requirements for the magnets and cryonics mean that it will produce 10 times more power than it consumes. ...‘Even though it will have a 500MW output, it won’t be connected to electricity generation machinery,’ said Kaname Ikeda, ITER’s director-general."
Link to source


TIMELINE NOTE: On Jan. 10, 2008, the U.S. DoE advised ITER director-general Ikeda that it was withdrawing from the "500 MWt" project.
Link to source


Matt Ford / Ars Technica, Report on AAAS Meeting — Feb. 16, 2008
"Introduced by Dr. Norbert Holtkamp, ITER's goal is to produce a significant fusion power amplification in a long pulse operation (for ~1,000 sec). The researchers and engineers involved come from seven different geographic groups and hope to put 50 MW into the reactor, yet get 500 MW out in thermal energy."


Geoff Brumfiel / Nature — June 12, 2008
"ITER is designed to test the feasibility of fusion power."
Link to source


Physics World — October 2008
ITER is a €5bn experimental reactor that aims to demonstrate the scientific and technical feasibility of fusion by producing 500 MW of power in 1000 second pulses.
Link to source


Andrew Orlowski / The Register — Oct. 22, 2008
"ITER is designed to produce 500MW for 300 to 500 seconds with an input of 50MW."


Nadia Ramlagan / APS News — November 2008
"ITER will use strong magnetic fields ... producing nearly 500 million watts of power. ... ITER will fuse deuterium and tritium together to form helium and a neutron, while releasing 10 times the amount of energy originally needed to make the nuclei fuse. ... [ITER] will be the first fusion reactor to create significantly more energy than it uses."


Jonathan Fahey / Forbes — Nov. 7, 2008
"ITER, for International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor, is designed to be the first reactor to produce sustained fusion reactions and generate more energy than it uses."


Ian Sample / The Guardian — Jan. 29, 2009
"In 1991, scientists at JET became the first in the world to produce energy from a deuterium/tritium plasma. While JET generated 16 MW of power, ITER is designed to produce some 500 MW in 400-second bursts."


James Kanter / New York Times — April 29, 2009
"The goal is to prove that energy can be generated through nuclear fusion ... So far, experimental fusion reactors have required more energy to operate than they have produced. ITER and the project in Japan are supposed to prove that fusion could be much more than a drain on the grid. ... Scientists then would spend the next decade or so trying to create bursts of power of up to 500 megawatts for several minutes at a time."


Geoff Brumfiel / Nature — April 29, 2009
"ITER should generate roughly 500 megawatts of thermal power — around 10 times the amount of power needed to run it."


Phys Org — June 18, 2009
"ITER is designed to produce 500 megawatts of power for extended periods, 10 times the energy needed to keep the energy-generating plasma − a form of radioactive gas − at extremely high temperatures."


[Note: In October 2009, New Scientist magazine published two articles and one poster about the ITER project. Four authors collaborated on the documents. Roger Highfield and Valerie Jamieson were editors for New Scientist. Neil Calder was the head of public relations for the ITER Organization and Robert Arnoux was a staff member of the ITER public relations team. The poster says that it was produced "with the support" of the ITER Organization which probably means that they paid the magazine to publish the articles and the poster.]

Roger Highfield, Valerie Jamieson, Neil Calder and Robert Arnoux /New Scientist — Oct. 9, 2009
"ITER: A Brief History of Fusion"

"In JET, TFTR, and JT-60, scientists have approached the long-sought 'break-even point,' where a device releases as much energy as is required to produce fusion. ITER's objective is to go much further and release 10 times as much energy as it will use to initiate the fusion reaction. For 50 MW of input power, ITER will generate 500 MW of output power."
Archive Copy

Roger Highfield, Valerie Jamieson, Neil Calder and Robert Arnoux / New Scientist — Oct. 9, 2009
Article: "ITER: How It Works"

"The aim is for ITER to generate 500 megawatts of fusion power. This would pave the way for a demonstration power plant, called DEMO, in which fusion power will produce steam and – by way of turbines – up to 1000 megawatts of net electrical power. That’s equivalent to a power plant that could supply about half a million British homes."
Archive Copy

Roger Highfield, Valerie Jamieson, Neil Calder and Robert Arnoux / New Scientist — Oct. 17, 2009
Poster: "ITER: The Way to a Benign and Limitless New Energy Source "

"JET marked a key step in international collaboration, and in 1991 achieved the world’s first controlled release of fusion power. While a significant amount of fusion power was produced by JET, and TFTR, exceptionally long-duration fusion was achieved in the Tore Supra tokamak, a EURATOM-CEA installation located at France’s Cadarache nuclear research centre and later in the TRIAM-1M tokamak in Japan and other fusion machines."

"In JET, TFTR and JT-60 scientists have approached the long-sought 'break-even point,' where a device releases as much energy as is required to produce fusion. ITER’s objective is to go much further and release 10 times as much energy as it will use to initiate the fusion reaction."

"For 50 MW of input power, ITER will generate 500 MW of output power. ITER will pave the way for the Demonstration power plant, or DEMO, in the 2030s. As research continues in other fusion installations worldwide, DEMO will put fusion power into the grid by the middle of this century. The last quarter of this century will see the dawn of the Age of Fusion."
Archive Copy


Charles Seife / Sun in a Bottle — Oct. 27, 2009
"JET got 6 watts out for every 10 it put in. It was a record, and a remarkable achievement, but a net loss of 40 percent of energy is not the hallmark of a great power plant."


Oilfield Technology — Feb 19, 2010
"ITER is a large-scale scientific experiment that aims to demonstrate that it is possible to produce commercial energy from fusion. The ratio of fusion power (Q) to input power can be represented thus: Q = 10. The scientific goal of the ITER project is to deliver 10 times the power it consumes. From 50 MW of input power, the ITER machine is designed to produce 500 MW of fusion power - the first of all fusion experiments to produce net energy."


Emiliano Feresin / Nature — April 30, 2010
"And unlike ITER, the ultimate aim of IGNITOR is to demonstrate the feasibility of plasma ignition — a state in which there is enough fusion power to maintain the reaction without the need for external heat. ITER, on the other hand, aims to maintain fusion by generating up to 10 times more power than it consumes."


Geoff Brumfiel / Nature — May 6, 2010
"The energy released by the machine should be roughly ten times the power it consumes."


Geoff Brumfiel / Nature — May 12, 2010
"Researchers hope that ITER, based in the south of France, will prove the viability of nuclear fusion as a power source. ... The process is expected to release ten times the power it consumes."


Geoff Brumfiel / Nature — May 28, 2010
"The doughnut-shaped ITER reactor would use superconducting magnets to heat and squeeze hydrogen until the device ignites a fusion reaction, releasing around ten times the power it consumes."


Geoffrey Brumfiel / NPR — July 27, 2010
"ITER hopes to change all that by producing 500 megawatts of power -- 10 times the energy it consumes."


Harry de Quetteville / Gulf News Sept. 3, 2010
"When it is switched on for the first time, it will produce 500 MW of thermal energy, from which it will generate nearly 200 MW of electricity, enough to power a small city."


Jonathan Amos / BBC Oct. 14, 2010
"Iter is designed to produce 500MW of fusion power during pulses of at least 400 seconds. Critically, the machine is expected to demonstrate the principle that it possible to get far more energy out of the process than is used to initiate it."


Matin Duranni / Physics World Nov. 5, 2010
"If ITER fails to do what it's set out to do, which is to create a deuterium-tritium plasma that produces 10 times more power than is put in, what then?"

"This huge multinational experiment, which is a joint effort of Canada, China, the European Union, India, Japan, South Korea and the US, seeks to create a deuterium-tritium plasma that can release 10 times more power than it consumes. The aim is to show that fusion can potentially be a sustainable source of energy here on Earth."


Geoff Brumfiel / Nature — Nov. 12, 2010
"If all goes to plan, ITER will release ten times the power it consumes, sometime after 2026.

Leo Hickman / The Guardian — Aug. 23, 2011
"Cowley is referring to the moment of parity when the amount of energy they extract from a tokamak equals the amount of energy they put into it. At present, the best-ever "shot" – as the scientists refer to each fusion reaction attempt – came in 1997 when, for just two seconds, the JET (Joint European Torus) tokamak at Culham achieved 16MW of fusion power from an input of 25MW."

"'We could produce net electricity right now, but the costs would be huge,' says Cowley."

"ITER which, it is hoped, will demonstrate the commercial viability of fusion by producing a tenfold power gain of 500MW during shots lasting up to an hour."


World Nuclear News — Sept. 26, 2011
"ITER is earmarked as being the first fusion reactor capable of producing net power. Fifty megawatts of input power should be enough to produce 500 megawatts output sustained on something closer to a steady state basis."


Adrian Giordani / Science Node — Oct. 19, 2011
"But, it takes more energy than it produces - JET produced 16 megawatts (MW) of power output, but required 24 MW of power input. Energy gain will be the goal of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) that will be built in Cadarache, France in the next few years. "It will have a net energy gain of 10, requiring a 50 MW input for a 500 MW output, which is approaching the levels we will need for commercial power stations," said Romanelli.
Link to source


Professor Tom Murphy / UCSD — Jan. 31, 2012
"The current timeline calls for achievement of a 480 second burst of 500 MW power in the year 2026, although there is no plan to capture the generated heat for the production of electricity. ... ITER aims for a thermal output ten times that of the input energy."
Link to Source


Geoff Brumfiel / Scientific American — June 2012
"It will generate around 500 megawatts of power, 10 times the energy needed to run it." 


Peter Dunn / MIT News — June 17, 2012
"ITER is designed to produce output of 500MW from input of 50MW, and prove fusion power’s feasibility."


Gaia Vince / BBC — Aug. 13, 2012
"The plan is to use 50 megawatts (in heating the plasma and cooling the reactor), and get 500 MW out ... The JET experiment in the UK, hasn't even managed to break even, energy-wise. Its best ever result, in 1997, achieved a 16 MW output with a 25 MW input."


Science Daily Jan. 16, 2013
"So far, fusion scientists have succeeded in generating fusion power, but the required energy input was greater
than the output. The international experiment ITER, which starts operating in 2020, will be the first device to
produce a net surplus of fusion power, namely 500 megawatts from a 50 megawatt input."
Link to source


Daniel Clery / Science — Jan. 17, 2013
"It takes so much energy to get a plasma up to a temperature at which fusion occurs that no reactor has yet produced net energy gain. ITER is expected to break through that barrier and generate 500 megawatts from a 50 MW input for periods lasting a few minutes. But it will be only a scientific demonstration; ITER won't generate any electricity."
Archive copy


Soo Bin Park / Nature — Jan. 21, 2013
"ITER's goal of producing 500 million watts for 500 seconds by the late 2020s."


Ge Li / Nature — Sept. 6, 2013
"ITER may produce 500 MWt of power by 2026 and may serve as a green energy roadmap for the world."

REDDIT Thread in Response to ITER Promotional Video "ITER In Five Minutes" — April 8, 2014
chordinine: "I was under the impression that a fusion reaction producing more energy than was put in was still a long ways away, and that a 1:1 ratio had not even been accomplished. Under this plan, they are saying that they can achieve a 1:10 energy ratio. Am I missing something?"

Powerfury: "They said it was a 1:10 ratio, but only for 300 second (5 minutes). So it does not seem sustainable for extended periods of time. This plant sounds more of a research plant for future progress."

nhillson: "ITER, in contrast, uses magnetic confinement fusion, which has produced at least a 70% return on input energy, and possibly a 125% return. It's now just a matter of scaling up, which increases the power produced, as well as the efficiency."

Neoshade: "It's not an advertisement. Billions of dollars have already been spent. Construction is underway in each country. And yes, profitability is a long way off. ITER is meant to prove that net gain fusion can be done. They intend to produce energy for a matter of seconds, and to use this machine as a proof of concept and to learn more about how to do it right next time. Many smaller machines have been built to study fusion. This will be the largest ever and the first to achieve a net gain in energy."
Link to source


Stephen Harris / The Engineer — April 25, 2013
"The experimental ITER reactor will produce around 500 MW of power."
Archive Copy


Steve Connor / The Independent — April 27, 2013
"For every 50 megawatts of electricity it uses, it should generate up to 500 MW of power output in the form of heat."


Anthony King / Euroscientist — June 17, 2013
"Today, ITER scientists are cautious regards timelines, acknowledging that full-scale fusion plants are decades away. ITER itself aims to show the feasibility of producing 500 megawatts, with an input of 50, and pave the way for a Demo project sometime after 2040."


Declan Butler / Nature — Oct. 15, 2013
"The meeting is the start of a year-long review by ITER to try to keep the experiment on track to generate 500 MW of power from an input of 50 MW by 2028, and so hit its target of attaining the so-called Q≥10, where power output is ten times input or more."


Abhijit Sen / Fusion Science and Technology — Jan. 2014
"ITER will nominally operate at a net fusion power gain Q=10 by producing 500 MW of fusion power against an input power of 50 MW."
Link to source


Raffi Khatchadourian / New Yorker — March 3, 2014
"[ITER will] produce ten times the energy fired into the plasma, at half a gigawatt."


Daniel Clery (quoted in) Physics Today — April 1, 2014
"I’m not a fusion scientist. I think ITER will work and it will produce more energy than it consumes. They’d be really unlucky if it didn’t. But a power utility is never going to want something like ITER because it’s so complicated."


Oak Ridge Today — May 7, 2014
"ITER, a full-scale, 500 megawatt experimental fusion device."


Rebecca Pool / Engineering and Technology June 16, 2014
"[JET is] famed for releasing a hefty 16MW of power from a total input power of 24MW in 1997. The tokamak now serves as a blueprint to build the much more powerful France-based International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), which aims to release 500MW of energy for 500 seconds, by the early 2020s."

"As Culham’s Prof Cowley explains: “The engineering milestone is when the whole plant produces more energy than it consumes. ITER will be the first to do this."


Elizabeth Gibney / Nature — July 31, 2014
"[ITER] an experimental reactor designed to use nuclear fusion to generate ten times the power that is put in."


Alok Jha / The Guardian — Jan. 25, 2015
"[ITER's] design is a scaled-up version of JET, and the scientists here want to produce 500 megawatts of power, 10 times its predicted input."


Ethan Siegel / Forbes — Aug. 27, 2015
"The breakeven energy point in nuclear fusion [is] where we get out as much energy as we put in. … The reality is we’ve moved ever closer to the breakeven point."


Lev Grossman / TIME — Oct. 22, 2015
"The goal for [tokamak] machines is to pass the break-even point, where the reactor puts out more energy than it takes to run it. The big tokamaks came close in the 1990s, but nobody has quite done it yet."

"The gain (the ratio of energy-out to energy-in) of a commercial fusion plant would have to be in the 15-to- 20 range; right now ITER’s target gain is 10; to date no fusion reactor has yet reached a ratio of 1, the break-even point."


REDDIT Thread "CMV: We Should Abandon the ITER Project" — Nov. 5, 2015
endless_sea_of_stars: "ITER is a $14 billion project to build a reactor that has the following goals: Produce 10 times the energy it produces, Sustain fusion for 15 minutes at a time, Provide a platform for scientific and engineering research."
Link to source


Daniel Clery / Science — Nov. 19, 2015
"The ITER project aims to show that nuclear fusion — the power source of the sun and stars — is technically feasible as a source of energy. Despite more than 60 years of work, researchers have failed to achieve a fusion reaction that produces more energy than it consumes. ITER … is the biggest attempt so far and is predicted to produce at least 500 megawatts of power from a 50 megawatt input."


Will Mumford / SBS — Dec. 6, 2015
"In 1997, the Joint European Torus (JET) reactor produced a record 16 megawatts of fusion power; however, it took 24 megawatts of input power to create − a net loss. If successful, ITER will produce 500 megawatts of power for 50 megawatts of input power, a tenfold return."


REDDIT Thread "Will ITER Work?" — Dec. 11, 2015
SynopticOutlander: "I'd like to hear your opinions on the proposed 500MW output to 50MW input, with a 1000sec sustained reaction. How sure are we? Is all the math there? If so, why aren't we more excited? As the facility is slated to be operational in only 2019. If ITER succeeds will that put an end to Stellarators?"

UWwolfman
: "As a fusion scientist my goals for ITER are slightly different then the political objective of Q=10 (500MW) for 500s. It is absolutely critical the ITER achieves high Q for a long sustained pulse. But ITER is really a science experiment that is needed to study the physics of a self-heated burning plasma."
Link to source


Nathaniel Scharping / Discover — March 23, 2016
"ITER is projected to produce 500 MW of power with an input of 50 MW, … enough energy to power roughly 50,000 households." 


Keith Wagstaff / Motherboard — May 3, 2016
"When completed, ITER is expected to create 10 times the energy that is required to produce and heat its plasma."


Davide Castelvecchi and Jeff Tollefson / Nature — May 26, 2016
"[ITER] is predicted to produce about 500 megawatts of electricity."


Dave Loschiavo / Ars Technica — July 3, 2016
"[ITER] is projected to produce 500 MW of fusion energy while consuming 50MW to heat the hydrogen."


Damian Carrington / The Guardian — Oct. 17, 2016
"ITER should be completed in 15-20 years and claims to deliver 500 MW of power, about the same as today’s large fission reactors."


Stephen K. Ritter / C&EN — Nov. 7, 2016
November 7, 2016 |At a cost exceeding $20 billion, this 20-year project has set a goal of generating 10 times as much energy as it consumes."


Damian Carrington / The Guardian — Dec. 2, 2016
"'We are convinced we can deliver hundreds of megawatts through ITER,’ up to 10 times more energy than is put in, says David Campbell."

Dave Anderson / Listland — Feb. 8, 2017
"[ITER] will be the first device ever created that will produce net energy. Net energy is when the amount of energy that is generated from the system is greater than the energy that is used to power the system itself. The ITER tokamak has been strategically designed to surpass the current world record for fusion power. The current record is held by a European tokamak called ‘Jet.’ This tokamak produced 16MW of power from a 24MW input in 1997. The ITER energy project aims to shatter this record, providing an incredible return on energy. With just 50MW of power put in, it is expected to produce 500MW of fusion power!"


Javier Yanes / BBVAOPENMIND — March 23, 2017
"Chapman sets some dates and numbers: at the beginning of the 2030s, ITER will produce 500 megawatts, consuming between 50 and 100."
Link to source


Henry Fountain / New York Times — March 27, 2017
"Although all fusion reactors to date have produced less energy than they use, physicists are expecting that ITER will benefit from its larger size, and will produce about 10 times more power than it consumes."


Fraser Cain / Universe Today — May 28, 2017
"If all goes well, ITER will have a ratio of 10. In other words, for every 10 MW of energy pumped in, it’ll generate 100 MW of usable power."  


CNBC International TV — April 25, 2017
"In 2007, work began in the South of France on ITER. The idea was to build the biggest tokamak in the world and produce 10 times more energy than it would take to power it."


Jing Cao / Bloomberg — June 29, 2017
"[ITER’s] developers say it’ll produce 500 megawatts of power, using 50 megawatts to get the reaction going. That output could power a city of 375,000 homes."


Edwin Cartlidge / Nature — July 6, 2017
"ITER [will] generate electricity only in bursts of a few minutes." [Krivit posted comment, Nature corrected article, Nature removed Krivit comment]
Archive copy


Edwin Cartlidge / BBC News — July 11, 2017
"[ITER] is designed to generate 10 times the power that it consumes."


Jason Socrates Bardi / Inside Science (American Institute of Physics) — July 17, 2017
"The goal of ITER is to prove it’s possible to produce a net gain of energy. That means it will produce more power than it takes to make it. It will produce 500 megawatts of output power but only use 50 megawatts of input power."


S.A. Mathieson / The Register — Sept. 25, 2017
"[JET] set a record, producing 16MW of fusion power from a total input power of 24 MW. ITER, however, is a scaled-up version of JET currently under construction in the south of France planned to open in 2025 – a fusion reactor that aims to use 50 MW to generate 500 MW."


REDDIT Thread: "How Much Energy Will the ITER Produce if Successful--in Layman's Terms? — Oct. 2, 2017
danherczak: "I was reading this article which states that the ITER will produce 500MW of power out of an input of 50MW. The efficiency itself is very exciting, but what does it actually mean? How many homes can you run on that, and for how long? And will it produce 500MW a day, 500MW an hour...?"

RobusEtCeleritas
: "ITER is not intended to be used for commercial power. It’s for fusion research, and proving that we can in fact reach ignition using magnetic confinement fusion reactors."

danherczak: "Thank you for your answer. What will they do with the energy it produces? Are they not even going to capture it?"

restricteddata: "The heat energy is just 'waste' if you don't do anything with it. They have a cooling system that works like most other cooling systems (cycles water through so that the heat can be removed and sent to cooling towers), albeit tuned to the expected needs of ITER."

Soloandthewookiee: "I would bet that the 500MW number is power-thermal, i.e., the heat generated from the reactor, not the electricity generated. I don't know that they would bother capturing it since that would require an entire steam cycle with turbines and generators. More likely, they'll use heat exchangers and reject the heat to the atmosphere or in some other manner. Also realize that it's an experimental reactor and is only intended to run for about 15 minutes at a time, so there's not much energy to be gained there.

To answer your original question, though, assuming the reactor generates 500MW-thermal and it has an efficiency of 33% (similar to fission reactors), subtracting the 50MW needed to sustain the reaction, it would generate around 150MW-electrical. The average US home uses about 1.2kW of electricity, so 150MW would be enough to power 125,000 homes."
Link to source


TIMELINE NOTE: On Oct. 6, 2017, New Energy Times published "The ITER Power Amplification Myth," which led to many corrections and retractions of ITER power claims. Some of Bernard Bigot's subsequent public communications such as this one , this one, and this one, avoided the claim that the reactor would require only 50 MW of input power. Other organizations continued publishing the 50 MW input power claim without realizing that it was wrong.


Peter Teffer, EUObserver — Nov. 15, 2017
"The current challenge is to prove that a fusion reactor can be built which produces more power than it consumes."


Mark Lapedus / Semiconductor Engineering — Dec. 5, 2017
"The world record for fusion power is held by JET, a European effort. In 1997, JET produced 16 MW of fusion power from a total input power of 24 MW, according to ITER. In comparison, ITER is designed to produce 500 MW of fusion power from 50 MW of input power."


Alan Boyle / Geekwire — Dec. 6, 2017
"ITER’s ambition is to demonstrate a sustained fusion reaction that produces a net gain in energy."


Frank Jordans / Associated Press — Dec. 6, 2017
"[ITER is] a vast international experiment designed to demonstrate that nuclear fusion can be a viable source of energy. ... Scientists hope it will demonstrate that such a fusion reactor can produce more energy than it consumes."


Hannah Osborne / Newsweek — Dec. 6, 2017
"[ITER] would prove that fusion energy on a commercial scale is a possibility."


AP/Daily Mail — Dec. 6, 2017
"[ITER] is designed to show a fusion reactor can produce more energy than it consumes."


Agencia EFE — Dec. 6, 2017
"ITER, the giant experimental machine that wants to demonstrate the viability of fusion energy as an alternative to fossil [fuels], ..."


Charles Q. Choi / Live Science — Dec. 7, 2017
"Its goal? To fuse hydrogen atoms and generate 10 times more power than goes into it. By the 2030s, ... the ITER tokamak should generate 500 megawatts of power."


Anmar Frangoul / Yahoo — Dec. 7, 2017
"[ITER is] a vast project to prove that fusion power is sustainable and can be generated on a commercial scale."


Charlie Wood / Christian Science Monitor — Dec. 11, 2017
"If successful, the colossal International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) will produce 10 times as much energy as it takes to run."


World Nuclear News — Dec. 11, 2017
 "[ITER] is a major international project to build a 500MW tokamak fusion device (requiring an input of 50 MW) designed to prove the feasibility of fusion as a large-scale and carbon-free source of energy."


Natasha Romanzoti / Hypescience — Dec. 11, 2017
"So far, no one has built a fusion reactor that could supply a small town, a state or country. ITER is the hope to change that."


Veronique Le Billon / Les Echos — Dec. 12, 2017
"The goal of the 'big machine': to produce 500 megawatts with 50 megawatts of initial power."


Sputnik News — Dec. 12, 2017
"ITER project scientists calculate that their working experimental generator will generate about 500 megawatts of energy, five times the amount it consumes through its operation."


Lea Udov / Stakrog — Dec. 13, 2017
"The purpose of [ITER] is to build the largest experimental fusion reactor, in which, by means of fusion, they would generate 10 times as much energy as the reactor [uses]."


RIA — Dec. 13, 2017
"It is assumed that in the operating mode the installation will give 500 megawatts of energy. This is five times more than it consumes."

"The goal of the big machine: to produce 500 megawatts with 50 megawatts of initial power."
Link to source


Patrick J. Kiger / How Stuff Works — Dec. 19, 2017
"But so far, [experimental tokamaks have] required more energy to operate than the fusion generates. But ITER hopes to overcome that. … ITER will use 50 megawatts of power input to generate 500 megawatts of fusion energy, in the form of heat."


Christa Marshall / E&E News — Dec. 21, 2017
"The international demonstration is aiming to generate about 10 times its input power."


Christa Marshall / Science — Dec. 21, 2017
"The international demonstration is aiming to generate about 10 times its input power."


Dom Galeon / Futurism — Dec. 30, 2017
"Best of all, the ITER tokamak has been designed to 'produce 500 MW of fusion power (Q≥10) from 50 MW of heating input power.'"


John Russell /VOA — Dec. 31, 2017
"The director of the ITER project says the facility is 50 percent complete and on track to produce low-cost energy."


Publico — Jan. 2, 2018
"500 megawatts of thermal power will be produced."


Muhammad Huzaifa Ali / The Nation (Pakistan) — Jan. 8, 2018
"ITER ... will be able to produce 500 MW for up to 1,000 seconds with an input of only 50 MW."


Atul Pant / Institute for Defence Studies and Analyses — Jan. 10, 2018
"In all the experimentation conducted to date, it has not proved possible to obtain a higher output of fusion energy than the input energy. The best output to input energy ratio has been 65 percent."


John Draper, Peerasit Kamnuansilpa / The Nation-Thailand Portal — Jan. 12, 2018
"Sometime after 2035, ITER is expected to produce 500 MW of fusion energy for 50 MW of input energy."


Brittany Crocker / USA Today/Knox News — Feb. 15, 2018
"ITER is an international endeavor to build a reactor that produces much more energy than it uses."


Maria Temming / Science News — Feb. 17, 2018
"ITER in France is an international effort to build the first magnetic fusion reactor that pumps out more energy than it consumes."


Timothy Gardner / Reuters — March 6, 2018
"An international project to build a nuclear fusion reactor in France that would start generating electricity in 17 years will face delays if Trump administration cuts are not reversed in a few months, the head of the venture said on Tuesday. ... [ITER is] a nuclear fusion reactor in France that would start generating electricity in 17 years."


Reuters - Japan Times — March 6, 2018
"An international project to build a nuclear fusion reactor in France that would start generating electricity in 17 years will face delays if U.S. cuts are not reversed in a few months, the head of the venture said on Tuesday. ... [ITER] would generate electricity from a process similar to the fusion that powers the sun."


Giuliano Aluffi / La Repubblica - March 10, 2018
"We plan to produce 500 megawatts with 50 megawatts of consumption." [Tim Luce, director of research for the ITER project.]
Link to source


Editors / The Guardian — March 12, 2018
"JET hasn’t even managed to break even, energy-wise. Its best ever result, in 1997, remains the gold standard for fusion power – but it achieved just 16 MW of output for 25 MW of input."


Éanna Kelly / Science Business — March 15, 2018
"When completed, ITER will theoretically produce 10 times as much energy as it needs to run. It will be a 'massive, safe, clean, and predictable energy source for hundreds of thousands of years,' said Bigot. 'If we succeed - and we will - the breakthrough will be so large.'”


Samuel Sheppard / The Boar — March 28, 2018
"ITER promises to create a fusion reactor that can generate 10 times more energy than is put in."


Geert De Clercq / Reuters — April 13, 2018
"[ITER,] a prototype fusion reactor to generate electricity in a process similar to the nuclear fusion that powers the sun."


Editors / World Nuclear News — April 19, 2018
"Iter is a major international project to build a 500MW tokamak fusion device (requiring an input of 50MW) designed to prove the feasibility of fusion as a large-scale and carbon-free source of energy."


Richard L. Hudson / Science Business — May 2, 2018
"ITER aims to switch on in 2025, and generate power by 2035."


Katherine Bourzac / C&EN — Aug. 6, 2018
"By 2035, ITER will use 50 MW of input power to produce 500 MW of fusion power."


Sean O’Neill quoting Melanie Windridge / New Scientist — Sept. 15, 2018
"[ITER is] aiming to get about 10 times more energy out of the fusion reaction than they put in. That will prove fusion energy is possible."


Vishal Gulati / Indo-Asian News Service — Oct. 11, 2018
"ITER aims to prove that fusion power can be produced on a commercial scale."


Vishal Gulati / Indo-Asian News Service — Oct. 11, 2018
"...world's largest tokamak fusion device, a donut-shaped configuration designed to produce 500 MW of thermal fusion energy."


APS Announcement of Lecture by Tim Luce, ITER Chief Scientist — Nov. 5, 2018
"By producing 500 MW of power from an input of 50 MW — a gain factor of 10 — ITER will open the way to the next step: a demonstration fusion power plant."
Link to source


Jack Kilbride and Bang Xiao / Australian Broadcasting Corp. — Nov. 15, 2018
"ITER is set to be the first fusion device to consistently produce net energy, producing 500 megawatts of clean and sustainable power ... ITER will be the first fusion device in the world to produce more energy than it takes to run."


Andreas Dietl / JUNGLE.WORLD — Jan. 3, 2019
(German) "Hier in Cadarache soll zum ersten Mal ein Fusionsreaktor entstehen, der tatsächlich als Kraftwerk funktioniert. Das heißt vor allem, dass der Reaktor mehr Energie liefern soll, als für seinen Betrieb nötig ist – genau gesagt: zehnmal mehr. 50 Megawatt Leistung soll der Internationale Thermonukleare Experimentelle Reaktor – kurz: ITER – verschlingen, gleichzeitig jedoch 500 Megawatt produzieren. Die Ingenieure sprechen von einem Q-Wert von 10, und das ist der Wert, dem sie nachjagen. Der bisherige Weltrekord für einen Fusionsreaktor ist ein Vierteljahrhundert alt und liegt bei 0,67."

(English) "A fusion reactor is to be built here in Cadarache for the first time, which actually functions as a power plant. Above all, this means that the reactor should deliver more energy than is necessary for its operation - to be precise: ten times more. The International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor - ITER for short - is expected to devour 50 megawatts of power, but at the same time produce 500 megawatts. The engineers speak of a Q value of 10, which is the value they are chasing. The previous world record for a fusion reactor is a quarter of a century old and is 0.67." Link to source


Peter Gwynne / Physics World — Jan. 8, 2019
"The ITER fusion reactor aims to show that it is technically feasible to get usable amounts of energy from a controlled fusion reaction. ... the facility aiming to generate 500 MW of power."


Stuart Nathan / The Engineeer — Jan. 3, 2019
"[ITER] is expected to be the fïrst fusion plant to achieve a net energy gain."

"ITER is intended to produce about 10 times as much energy as it takes to maintain fusion," [Donné] said. “We call the ratio of ‘power out’ to ‘power in’ the Q factor, and at the moment no fusion reactor has exceeded a Q factor of one (Q1). ITER’s performance we call Q10, but because of the inefficiencies inherent in generating electricity – with heat exchange and turbines – Q10 is nowhere near enough to be useful."


Editors / World Nuclear News — Jan. 30, 2019
"ITER is a major international project to build a 500 MW tokamak fusion device (requiring an input of 50 MW) designed to prove the feasibility of fusion as a large-scale and carbon-free source of energy."

Stéphane Loignon / Le Parisien Feb. 5, 2019
" Objectif: produire 10 fois plus d'énergie qu'il en est consommé (500 MW – mégawatts – pour 50 MW). Le record actuel, nettement inférieur, est détenu par le Tokamak JET, au RoyaumeUni, qui n'avait généré, en 1997, que 16 MW. Bien moins que les 24 MW qu'il avait consommés!"

"Objective: produce 10 times more energy than it consumes (500 MW - megawatts - for 50 MW). The current record, much lower, is held by the Tokamak JET, in the United Kingdom, which had generated, in 1997, only 16 MW. Much less than the 24 MW it had consumed!"
Link to source


Éanna Kelly / Science Business — Feb. 28, 2019
"[JET] ran the most successful fusion attempt ever, in 1997, creating 16 mega-watts (MW) of power – a return of 60 per cent on the energy fed in. The energy, which lasted for mere hundreds of a second, could very briefly power the nearby town of Abington (population 9,668). So far, no fusion experiment has been able to get more energy out of a reaction than was put in. JET’s record 16MW pulse needed 24MW to make it happen. ... Over the next few years before handing the baton to ITER, JET is aiming for the coveted goal of break even, where fusion yields as much energy as it consumes. 'I think we can do better than we did in 1997. I’m hoping we can smash our record,' said Chapman. ... ITER meanwhile promises to produce net fusion power sometime after 2035, if the present schedule holds."


L’Écho de Vinon-sur-Verdon — March-May 2019
(French) "L'objectif est de parvenir à produire 10 fois plus d'énergie que celle fournie pour le déclenchement de la réaction de fusion."

(English) "The goal is to produce 10 times more energy than that provided for initiating the fusion reaction."
Link to source


Molly / Power Technology — March 11, 2019
"ITER is aiming to generate 500MW of fusion power from 50MW of input heating power by 2025. This puts it roughly in the same generation capacity bracket as fission SMRs, although it is much larger."


Jillian Ambrose / Telegraph — March 31, 2019
"By 2025 they expect to start the first milestone experiments to prove that fusion technology can produce ten times more energy than it uses."


Jonathan Leake / Sunday Times — March 31, 2019
"Britian's JET experiment has achieved fusion, but only for a few seconds at a time."


David Stanway / Reuters — April 12, 2019
"While nuclear fusion could revolutionize energy production, with pilot projects targeting energy output at 10 times the input, no fusion project has up to now created a net energy increase. ... ITER is scheduled to generate first plasma by 2025. A demonstration reactor will then be built, with the aim of creating 500 megawatts of power from just 50 megawatts of input, a tenfold return on energy."


Xavier Boivinet / INDUSTRIE-TECHNO.COM — April 23, 2019
(French) "Les scientifiques tenteront de montrer que la fusion nucléaire peut produire dix fois plus d’énergie qu’elle n’en consomme pendant une durée relativement longue : 500 MW produits pour 50 MW consommés sur environ 10 minutes."

(English) "Scientists will try to show that nuclear fusion can produce ten times more energy than it consumes for a relatively long time: 500 MW produced for 50 MW consumed over about 10 minutes."
Link to source


The Economist — May 2 2019
"Iter, a reactor in France, may deliver fusion power as early as 2045."


Editors / World Nuclear News — June 20, 2019
"[ITER] is a major international project to build a 500 MW tokamak fusion device (requiring an input of 50 MW) designed to prove the feasibility of fusion as a large-scale and carbon-free source of energy."


Caroline Peachey / Nuclear Engineering International Magazine — June 18, 2019
"The goal of the project is to harness nuclear fusion – the reaction that powers the stars – and to prove its viability as an energy source."


Caroline Delbert / Popular Mechanics — July 28, 2020
"...with a trio of heating elements pulling a combined 50MW of power, enough for about 10,000 homes. That will bring the plasma to a temperature 10 times greater than the sun’s in the doughnut-shaped reactor to generate as much as 500MW of energy for brief bursts."


Vishal Gulati / Indo-Asian News Service — July 24, 2019
"ITER — a project proving that fusion power can be produced sustainably on a commercial scale."


Alex Hickey / Morning Brew — Aug. 15, 2019
"[ITER,] the first fusion device to generate net energy. ... By the late 2030s, the ITER tokamak is expected to produce up to 500 megawatts of fusion power in pulses that last 400 seconds, Danas Ridikas, head of the physics at the International Atomic Energy Agency, told the Brew."


lemondedelenergie.com — Aug. 24, 2019
"Le comité scientifique d’ITER œuvre en effet à la conception d’un réacteur tokamak capable de produire 10 fois plus d’énergie qu’il n’en consomme"

Hugo Leroux / Science et Vie — Sept. 27, 2019
(French) "En 1997, le plus grand tokamak actif formait, pendant une seconde, un plasma dégageant 16 mégawatts (MW) pour 24 MW dépensés. ... Son objectif - générer pendant 20 minutes 500 MW de puissance avec 50 MW de puissance injectée."

(English) "In 1997, the largest active tokamak formed, for a second, a plasma giving off 16 megawatts (MW) for 24 MW spent. ... [ITER's] objective - to generate 500 MW of power for 20 minutes with 50 MW of injected power."
Link to source


Jon Asmundsson, Will Wade, Christine Harper / Yahoo Finance and Bloomberg — Sept. 28, 2019
"The Joint European Torus, or JET, sets a record with a fusion output of 16.1 megawatts, equivalent to about 67% of the input energy, a Q of 0.67.

"Construction of ITER, an international fusion demonstration project, in the south of France is 60% complete. When turned on, ITER is expected to produce 10 times the energy it consumes, a Q of 10.

"When ITER achieves its first plasma, which is slated for 2025, it’s expected to hit a fusion milestone: It will produce more energy than it consumes. “There’s nobody knowledgeable in the space who doesn’t believe when they turn ITER on that it’s going to produce net energy out,” says General Fusion’s Mowry. ITER is expected to produce 500 megawatts while consuming 50. In the parlance of the field, it will have a Q>1. Specifically, since it’s expected to produce 10 times the energy put in, it would have a Q=10."


Philip Ball / The Guardian Oct. 27, 2019
"In 1997 Jet set a world record for the highest ratio of energy out to energy in. But that was still just two-thirds of the break-even point where the reactor isn’t consuming energy overall. ... [ITER] hopes to conduct its first experimental runs in 2025, and eventually to produce 500 megawatts (MW) of power – 10 times as much as is needed to operate it.
Link to source


Amy Wass / The Appalachian — Nov. 7, 2019
"ITER is using the participation of 28 countries, including China, members of the European Union, India, Japan, Korea, Russia and the United States, to create an experimental device that produces net energy."


Nuclear Engineering International — Nov. 11, 2019
"Iter, a 500 MW tokamak fusion device, requires an input of 50MW."
Link to source


REDDIT Thread: "The Iter Reactor's Construction Is Complete, Lets Hope It Will Be Successful" — Nov. 19, 2019

ukezi: "Reaching fusion temperature and creating the magnetic bottle takes a lot of energy. You can start fusion reactions with smaller reactors on the scale of Wendelstein 7-X, no problem there. However these reactors don't produce more power then they consume. We need them to be this big [ITER] to actually produce energy."

Ralath0n: "Yea, the goal of ITER is to demonstrate that we can actually build something that gets net energy out of fusion. ITER isn't actually going to generate electricity though, it doesn't have turbines to turn the produced heat into electricity."


Gary Elinoff / Electropages — Nov. 19, 2019
"The goal for this project is the production of 500 megawatts of power from an electrical input of 50 megawatts of electrical input, or a gain factor of ten to one."


Camille Guittonneau / LEMONDEDELENERGIE — Nov. 22, 2019
(French) "Le projet ITER permettra d’attendre une puissance de l’ordre de 500 MW pour 50 MW de puissance injectée. On est donc en présence d’un facteur 10 en termes de gain de puissance."

(English) "The ITER project will make it possible to expect power of the order of 500 MW for 50 MW of injected power. We are therefore in the presence of a factor of 10 in terms of power gain."
Link to source


Adrian Cho / Science — Feb. 6, 2020
"In 1994, PPPL’s largest machine ever, the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR), briefly generated 10.7 megawatts of power, still the record for U.S. efforts. ... ITER aims to be the first tokamak to produce more energy than it consumes. But TFTR was also supposed to do that and it came up short."


Daniel Michaels / Wall Street Journal — Feb. 6, 2020
"ITER targets a 10-fold increase in power between what goes in and what comes out. If all goes well, Mr. Bigot foresees others leveraging ITER’s research to build commercial fusion plants in the 2050s."


Tim L. Peckinpaugh, Michael L. O'Neill, Abraham F. Johns and R. Paul Stimers / The National Law Review — as of March 4, 2020
"Using magnets to control the plasma inside, the reactor set the record for the first generation of power by nuclear fusion, creating 16.1 megawatts (“MW”) of fusion energy, though it required 25 MW to produce the reaction."
Link to source

I wrote to the authors. They did not respond. A few days later, I wrote to Jennifer B. Schaller, Managing Director of the National Law Review. Her staff member Eilene Spear responded: "We are working to address this issue, and we have reached out to the authors for clarification. In the interim, we have removed the article from our site while we seek clarity on these issues." (Article removed from URL) I checked the page on April 2, 2020. The article was back. The entire sentence had been removed.

Tim L. Peckinpaugh, Michael L. O'Neill, Abraham F. Johns and R. Paul Stimers / The National Law Review — as of April 2, 2020


Stephen Johnson / BIGTHINK.COM — March 20, 2020
"The goal of the project is to prove that commercial nuclear fusion is possible by demonstrating that a reactor can produce more energy than it consumes."
Link to source


Antony Funnell / ABC Radio National — April 7, 2020
"For ITER to be considered a success, according to Professor Garrett, it must demonstrate that it can achieve an energy gain of a factor of 10. '"ITER consumes 50 megawatts of power to produce this plasma at 150 million degrees, and the goal is to produce 500 megawatts of power from that plasma,' he says."
Link to source


Jenna Tsui / Technology Networks — April 28, 2020
"ITER is expected to generate a maximum of 500 megawatts of power. This is about the production of an average coal-fired power plant, butmore than 140 times greater than the power output of the average wind turbine, which produces around 3.5 megawatts. The ITER project's power output will also be much more consistent than that of a wind farm or solar array."


Caroline Delbert / Popular Mechanics — April 28, 2020
"Ultimately, ITER’s adherents say it will take in exterior energy and produce 10 times as much energy output. (New Energy Times' Steven Krivit strongly contests this number and shows his work as to why."

Jonathan Tirone / Bloomberg News — May 2, 2020
"Economies are counting on the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor to prove whether limitless quantities of clean energy can be generated."


Princeton University Announcement of Bigot Lecture — May 14, 2020
"[ITER is] designed to build a 500-MW fusion plant in southern France, which is slated to be the first fusion experiment to produce more energy than it consumes."


Daniel Clery / Science — May. 27, 2020
"The $25 billion ITER project, which aims to build the world’s largest fusion reactor and finally demonstrate that melding together hydrogen nuclei is a viable energy source..."

World Nuclear News — May 29, 2020
"ITER will be a 500 MW tokamak fusion device (requiring an input of 50 MW) designed to prove the feasibility of fusion as a large-scale and carbon-free source of energy."


Vishal Gulati / IANS — June 17, 2020
"The ITER project -- a collaboration of 35 nations, comprising India, to prove that fusion power can be produced on a commercial scale and is sustainable..."


Rosaria Cercola / Massive Science — June 16, 2020
"This will put its power output on par with traditional coal or oil-powered plants."


Wallace Manheimer / (Letter in) Physics Today — July 1, 2020
"According to the ITER website (www.iter.org), the reactor is designed to produce a 10-fold or better return on energy; that is, it should produce 500 MW of fusion power from its 50 MW of input heating power."


Vishal Gulati / IANS via Tribune of India — July 26, 2020
"World's largest fusion plant set to create history ... [ITER] will work on the tokamak concept where the reaction of hydrogen isotopes deuterium and tritium produces energy by the mass-energy conversion principle, thereby proving to be a source of unlimited energy. The project aims to complete through first plasma in 2025, a key milestone toward full fusion power by 2035. The ITER facility aims to produce about 500 megawatts of thermal power."


On July 28, 2020, the ITER organization conducted a major publicity stunt to "celebrate" the fact that, many years after construction on the project had started, they were now beginning to assemble the components. The organization also issued a press release that day. The stunt resulted in hundreds of news reports, not listed here, many of which repeated verbatim the fraudulent power claim in the press release.


Jeff Berardelli / CBS News — July 28, 2020
"If all goes according to plan, the plant at ITER will produce about 500 megawatts of thermal power. The team says that if operated continuously and connected to the electric grid, ITER would be able to generate about 200 megawatts of electric power, enough for about 200,000 homes."


Damian Carrington / Guardian — July 28, 2020
"Iter project will replicate the reactions that power the sun and is intended to demonstrate fusion power can be generated on a commercial scale. ... The Iter project will be the first to achieve a “burning” or self-heating plasma and is expected to generate 10 times more heat than is put in, far more than any previous attempt."
Link to source


Ariel Cohen (Contributor) / Forbes — Aug. 7, 2020
"ITER is supposed to become the world’s first reactor capable of self-burning plasma and would ideally generate up to 10 times the amount of heat that it consumes. ... If successful, the reactor will draw 50 megawatts (MW) of electricity to ignite the fusion process and produce stable plasma. This plasma would then put out some 500MW of power (in short bursts), thereby generating a whopping 10x energy return."
Link to source


Pelle Axelsson / Intellectinterviews — Aug. 19, 2020
"[ITER] will be the first magnetic fusion device to produce net energy (more energy output than input)."
Link to source


Payal Dhar / IEEE Spectrum — Aug. 24, 2020
"If everything goes to plan, the first deuterium–tritium fusion experiments will be demonstrated by 2035, and will in essence be replicating the fusion reactions that take place in the sun. ITER estimates that for 50 MW of power injected into the tokamak to heat the plasma (up to 150 million degrees Celsius), 500 MW of thermal power for 400- to 600-second periods will be output, a tenfold return (expressed as Q ≥ 10). The existing record as of now is Q = 0.67, held by the JET tokamak."
Link to source


Henry Fountain / New York Times — Sept. 29, 2020
"Researchers laid out the evidence that Sparc would succeed and produce as much as 10 times the energy it consumes."


World Nuclear News — Oct. 21, 2020
" Iter is a major international project to build a 500MW tokamak fusion device (requiring an input of 50MW)."

Chris Lee / Ars Technica — Oct. 27, 2020
"[ITER and SPARC] are expected to produce more energy from fusion than the direct input energy, though neither is expected to produce useful power. ... they will show that fusion reactors that can produce useful electricity are possible."


Adam Vaughan / New Scientist — Dec. 2, 2020
"That might change in 2025, when the world’s biggest fusion project, ITER in France, is due to switch on. The hope is it will turn 50 megawatts of power into 500MW, proving a net gain is possible."


Daniel Clery / Science — Dec. 2, 2020
"The ITER tokamak in France, due for completion in 2025, will be the first to demonstrate energy gain, although that won’t happen until after 2035 and even then, the fusion energy won’t be used to generate electricity."


Peter Ray Allison / BBC — Dec. 15 2020
"[ITER] will be a fully-working demonstration fusion reactor, providing 500 megawatts of fusion power – enough, if converted to electricity, to power a city the size of Liverpool."


S&P Global Platts — Feb. 22, 2021
Construction of the 500 MW ITER Tokamak is 72% complete, according to ITER's website.

The world record for fusion power is held by the European tokamak JET, which in 1997 produced 16 MW of fusion power from a total input heating power of 24 MW.

The in-construction ITER Tokamak is designed to produce a 10-fold return on energy, or 500 MW of fusion power from 50 MW of input heating power.

The project will not capture the energy it produces as electricity, but prepares the way for a machine that can, ITER said.


Elizabeth Gibney / Nature — Feb. 22, 2021
"It is this fuel mix that ITER will use in its attempt to create more power from a fusion reaction than is put in — something that has never before been demonstrated. ... The [JET] facility succeeded in achieving a record ratio of power out to power in (known as a Q value) of 0.67. That record still stands today; 1 would be break-even."


Caroline Delbert / Popular Mechanics — Feb. 22, 2021
In fact, the world’s existing fusion reaction record, a 0.67:1 ratio of fusion output to input, was set at JET using tritium in 1997. (For a fusion reactor to make power, it must reach a ratio of 1.01:1"


TIMELINE NOTE: On April 11, 2021, New Energy Times released the film ITER, The Grand Illusion: A Forensic Investigation of Power Claims
World Nuclear News — April 25, 2021
"The goal of ITER is to operate at 500 MW (for at least 400 seconds continuously) with 50 MW of plasma heating power input. It appears that an additional 300 MWe of electricity input may be required in operation. No electricity will be generated at ITER."

Matthew Sparkes / New Scientist — June 15, 2021
"The plan is to create 500 megawatts of usable energy from an input of 50 megawatts."



 

 

 


 

Accurate and Transparent ITER Reactor Power Statements

Japanese JT60 Fusion Team
"Will ITER make more energy than it consumes? ... ITER is about equivalent to a zero (net) power reactor, when the plasma is burning."
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Martijn van Calmthout/de Volkskrant — May 25, 2018
"ITER is designed so that the plasma releases ten times as much fusion energy as energy needs to be put into the plasma to get the reactions working. But that does not mean that the reactor as a whole generates energy ... As a central unit, ITER with its roughly 500 megawatts of power, would net little or nothing, another reason that no generator would be connected to the test reactor as would happen in a real power station."

United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority — Page created in 2019
"ITER, should produce about as much fusion power as the electricity required to run the entire plant."
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