Scientists Who Promoted and Endorsed Andrea Rossi
Investigation by Steven B. Krivit (2011-2016)  

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Andrea Rossi did not draw widespread attention to his bogus claims all by himself. These people, in positions of influence in the LENR field, helped him:

Michael Melich
Mahadeva Srinivasan
David Nagel
Edmund Storms
Michael McKubre
Rob Duncan
Sergio Focardi (He was elderly and appeared to be confused.)

Additionally, these scientists, not directly involved in the LENR field, also helped:

Brian Josephson
Roland Pettersson
Giuseppe Levi
Hanno Essén
Sven Kullander

On the other hand, these are some of the people who sounded the alarm early and expressed concerns:

Francesco Celani
Steven B. Krivit
Larry Forsley
Matt McConnell

Andrea Rossi
Image courtesy Mats Lewan
Rossi meets Michael Melich, a longtime "cold fusion" advocate, investor in and advisor to the defunct ENECO. On or before March 12, 2010, Melich is listed as one of Rossi's advisors. At the time, Melich is a research professor at the Naval Postgraduate School. He is a former NRL staff member. (Sources: Rossi e-mails, Rossi June 14 interview with Krivit, McKubre presentation Oct. 11, 2011) (Sept. 25, 2009)
Melich ghost-writes and distributes a promotional report about the Jan. 14, 2011, Rossi device demonstration. Melich obtains raw data from Rossi or his colleagues, sends the data to three people he knows, and asks them to calculate the net production of excess heat. Melich writes the body of the report and includes calculations from two other scientists, one of whom is Melvin Miles. Melich gives his document to Rothwell, who uploads Melich's report to his Web site, omitting all author/contributor names, and displaying only Rothwell's name as editor of the document.

Melich writes that the Rossi device produced 12.517 kilowatts of excess heat. Melich's report is the first publically available technical report on the Rossi device, preceding, by four days, the official technical report written by Levi. (Jan. 17, 2011)
Marianne Macy, Melich's wife and a contributing writer for Infinite Energy magazine, writes a promotional report on the Jan. 14, 2011, test, and Rothwell uploads it to on Jan. 20, 2011. Macy writes that the Rossi device produces 12 kW of excess heat. Macy quotes Levi, who assures her that the water put into the system is completely vaporized. (Jan. 19, 2011)
"If it's a hoax, it's damn good one."
- Tony Tether, former head of DARPA, after seeing an E-Cat demonstration. (Source: E-mail to Pamela Mosier-Boss, 2011)
Mahadeva Srinivasan, chairman of the 16th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science (ICCF-16), to take place on Feb. 6-10, 2011, announces that he will include two last-minute presentations on the Rossi device in the conference program. One is by Celani, who observes the Jan. 14, 2011, test; the other is by Melich, one of Rossi's advisers. (Source: Srinivasan e-mail to LENR community) (Jan. 24, 2011)
Krivit sends an e-mail to Mahadeva Srinivasan and members of the ICCF-16 steering committee (Baldev Raj, R.K. Sinha, P.K. Iyengar) and warns them of the risks involved in making exceptions to the scientific program to allow last-minute presentations by Francesco Celani and Michael Melich about the Rossi claims. (Jan. 24, 2011)
At the 16th International Conference on Cold Fusion in Chennai, India, Francesco Celani, a physicist at the Italian National Institute of Nuclear Physics in Frascati, Italy, presents a highly critical report on the Rossi demonstration and identifies serious problems with the way Rossi and his colleagues measured and calculated the heat output. He is immediately followed by Melich. (Feb. 6, 2011)
"The history of independent inventors [inaudible]. Tesla is probably the most famous independent inventor who never realized anything from his inventions. And those lessons are known to us, and so [inaudible] and sometimes paranoid people are, in fact, justified [inaudible] and I would suggest that, in this case, this community has an interest in cutting [Rossi] a little slack and helping him."
- Michael Melich (Presentation on Rossi claims, ICCF-16, Chennai, India, Feb. 6, 2011) (Transcript) (Audio)
"When [Andrea Rossi’s Energy Catalyzers] show up at Home Depot, I’m going to go out there with my credit card."
- Robert Duncan,vice-provost of the University of Missouri, during the Saturday Science public lecture series (Feb. 11, 2011)
"Rossi's 10 kW unit heated a factory in 2007 for 24 hours per day for six months that reduced the factory's electricity bill by 90% and Rossi has 97 devices operating in four countries."
- David Nagel (ICENES May 15-19, 2011)
Krivit publishes video of June 14, 2011, Rossi demonstration. (June 20, 2011)
Krivit publishes first report from on-site visit and interviews: "Report #1- First Report of Interviews With E-Cat Trio." (June 21, 2011)
Krivit publishes second report from on-site visit and interviews:"Report #2 - Energy Catalyzer: Scientific Communication and Ethics Issues." (June 21, 2011)
"The deafening silence of the scientific and other media, in regard to what may well be the most important technological advance of the century, was the main stimulus for the creation of this video. Whereas the ITER thermonuclear project may lead to practical power generation some decades hence, generators based on the Rossi reactor, first demonstrated in January 2011, are already under construction."
- Nobel Prize Winner Brian Josephson (June 28, 2011)
In June 2011, Michael Melich arranges meeting between potential investor Brian Scanlan and Rossi in Miami. Prior to the meeting, Scanlan had constructed a consortium committed to funding $15 million provided he and Rossi could establish mutually agreed-upon test conditions.

"The meeting lasted about two hours but from the beginning was fraught with conflict. I mentioned that Ed Storms would design and run the calorimetry of our proposed test, which in hindsight I realize ended the negotiations. A real scientist and experimentalist such as Ed was too risky for Rossi [to accept]. Soon after, Rossi threw a tantrum, set a series of absurd conditions and left the room, followed by a train of his partners hoping to sooth the genius' hurt feelings. Although I wasn't amused at the time, I should have been. Rossi is a character sprung from Hollywood central casting."
- Brian Scanlan, in an e-mail to LENR field (April 11, 2016)
"I think we need to consider the possibility that a "Yellow Press" is being created in the field of cold fusion."
- Edmund Storms in an e-mail to LENR community in response to Krivit's investigation of Rossi (June 29, 2011)

"Ed, we should also consider the fact that Krivit is correct in this case. If he's not, the E-Cat will be all the more remarkable considering Rossi's 'checkered' past."
- Matt McConnell in an e-mail to LENR community (June 29, 2011)

"If this is a fraud, Rossi has nothing to gain because he gets nothing if the claims are not real, which would soon be discovered if he is lying. In fact, he has a huge risk if the claims are incorrect for any reason."
- Edmund Storms in an e-mail to LENR community (June 29, 2011)

"John, Do you really think a scam could be done on such a large scale involving a respected university, investors, and governments? If you accuse Rossi of a scam, you are also accusing these people of being either dishonest or incompetent."
- Edmund Storms in an e-mail to LENR community (June 29, 2011)
Krivit publishes third report - a 200-page compilation of independent technical and engineering analyses of Rossi's device:"Report #3 - New Energy Times #37." (July 30, 2011)
Krivit publishes "Rossi’s Scientific Failure in Seven Steps" in English, Swedish and Italian. (July 30, 2011)
"The entire field of cold fusion will grow rapidly and provide jobs for those of us who have slaved in the dark for so long. Personally, I hope [Rossi's apparatus] works as claimed, and I will do everything I can to promote the idea and work to make it better. Kicking Rossi at this stage just because the claim is not fully proven seems counter-productive to everyone. We desperately need the Rossi claim to be real."
- Edmund Storms in an e-mail to LENR community (Aug. 2, 2011)
"People that I know and trust, have stood in front of Rossi's reactor and come away convinced that it really is doing more or less what Rossi claims. This includes my ex-program manager at DARPA [Bob Nowak], a very, very intelligent man a good friend of mine. Ampenergo ran two tests on September 25, 2009, in New Hampshire it was witnessed by a good friend of mine, also a very smart guy."
- Michael McKubre, Café Scientifique, SRI International public lecture series (Oct. 11, 2011)
"From my study of the Rossi claims, the possibility of this being fraud is zero. The possibility of it being real is 100%. The possibility of it being a successful product at this stage is 25%. Therefore, failure of the community to support Rossi would be contrary to everything the community has been trying to accomplish and contrary to the future of the world with respect to finding a clean energy. The stakes are too high to play games."
- Edmund Storms in an e-mail to LENR community (Nov. 17, 2011)
"In the recent months he (Iyengar) was very happy to learn of the development of the Ni-H Rossi reactor and the imminent commercialization of Cold Fusion/Low Energy Nuclear Reactions. Iyengar's bold and far-sighted stand on this controversial subject stands vindicated."
- Mahadeva Srinivasan,, (Dec. 21, 2011)
Industrial Heat agrees to pay Rossi $100.5 million over three payments for a license to his E-Cat. First payment was $1.5 million, when the license agreement was executed. Second payment is to be $10 million, after successful completion of a 24-hour test performed by an independent expert responsible for validation. Third payment is to be $89 million after the successful completion of a 350-day test. (Source: Federal District Court Case 1:16-cv-21199-CMA) (Oct. 26, 2012)
"Even his supporters admit he lies as they excuse him for one reason or another."
- Paul Burns, (Nov. 2, 2012)
Krivit publishes fourth report: "Report #4: Rossi’s NASA Test Fails to Launch." (Feb. 10, 2012)
The 24-hour test for Industrial Heat is performed — in a location chosen and controlled by Rossi in Ferrara, Italy. Industrial Heat pays Rossi $10 million. (Source: Federal District Court Case 1:16-cv-21199-CMA) (On or about May 2, 2013)
"Tests of various versions of Rossi’s E-CAT devices during the past three years are encouraging, even though the tests have many shortfalls. In 2011, the tests ran for less than a day, but they produced powers in excess of 1 kW and had energy gains of 8 or more. In 2012 and early 2013, two E-CAT tests ran for 4 and 5 days, with powers near 1 kW and energy gains of about 6 and 3. A square waveform was used to control those runs. In 2014, the test of one e-CAT ran for 32 days, with power production around 2 kW and an energy gain as high as almost 4. In this test, a DC electrical input was used for control. So, both the control and the reliability of Rossi’s systems are reportedly improving. A recent review of these tests is available."
- Nagel, David, Infinite Energy, Jan.Feb. 2015, 119
Tthe 350-day test performed for Industrial Heat — in a location chosen and controlled by Rossi in Florida — begins. (Source: Federal District Court Case 1:16-cv-21199-CMA) (Feb. 19, 2015)
"The job of generating interest has been done mostly by one man: Andrea Rossi. He did this with showmanship and scale (475 kW). Industrialists don't care about scientific oddities (at least in their day jobs). But if you can generate 100's of kW for an extended period, unplugged, no sane energy technologist could fail to pay attention."
- Michael McKubre in an e-mail to LENR community (Feb. 21, 2015)
Thomas Francis Darden II, the manager, president, and director of Industrial Heat, spoke favorably to Fortune magazine about Rossi's E-Cat. “Rossi’s was one of the first investments we made,” Darden said. “We’ve been seeing the creation of isotopes and energy releases at relatively low temperatures — 1,000 degrees centigrade — which could be a sign that fusion has occurred.” (Sept. 27, 2015)
Industrial Heat raised $50 million from the Woodford Funds (including Woodford Patient Capital Trust, PLC and CF Woodford Equity Income Fund), predicated upon their claims that Industrial Heat had acquired Rossi's intellectual property. (Source: Federal District Court Case 1:16-cv-21199-CMA) (Sometime between May 2, 2013 and Feb. 19, 2016)
The 350-day test performed for Industrial Heat — in a location chosen and controlled by Rossi in Florida — finishes. (Source: Federal District Court Case 1:16-cv-21199-CMA) (Feb. 19, 2016)
Rossi presents Industrial Heat with a test report, claims the test was successful, and demands the remaining $89 million; the third payment. The test results were checked, and the report was written by Fabio Penon. Industrial Heat had paid half of Penon's fee and Rossi paid the other half. Penon had previously worked for Rossi and, in 2012, written another report affirming the validity of Rossi's E-Cat. For their "due diligence," on which millions of dollars of investement funds were at stake, Industrial Heat had agreed to use Penon as the "independent expert responsible for validation." (March 29, 2016)
On the day that the third payment ($89 million) was due from Industrial Heat, Rossi sues Industrial Heat for non-payment of the $89 million and for attempting to steal his technology. (April 5, 2016)
Industrial Heat issued a statement and said that it “has worked for over three years to substantiate the results claimed by Mr. Rossi from the E-Cat technology — all without success.” (April 8, 2016)
"It seems unrealistic that Rossi could be weaving such an enormous web of lies: he would have to be a brilliant psychopath to perpetuate the story for so many years."
- Bob Tinvan on E-CatWorld (April 8, 2016)
A freelance reporter working for a national magazine begins seeking comment for forthcoming story. (April 9, 2016)
"Several LENR experimentalists stopped their research given Rossi’s claims of megawatt excess power. Why research anomalous watts when Rossi claims a megawatt? But those claims continue to be unsubstantiated. Every one of the purported independent reports was neither independent, nor, properly controlled and conducted."

"LENR/LANR/CF had enough bad press amongst world-wide funding agencies and corporations dating back to March 23, 1989. But, even ignoring that, why fund anyone else when Rossi and his followers have taken over the discussion with their enormous claims? ... Don’t cut Rossi or any others so much slack. It demeans you, empowers them, and defrauds all of us."
- Larry Forsley, in an e-mail to LENR community (April 9, 2016)
"Naturally, some exaggeration, fraud, and lying would be involved because people do not like to give money without knowing the secret, which cannot be revealed."
- Edmund Storms in an e-mail to LENR community (April 10, 2016)
"Rossi sued before the money from Industrial Heat was due. Why the rush? Rossi wanted to strike first to paint himself as a victim before IH sues him for fraud. ...

"Take a look at 'How to Spot a Sociopath.' Most of us in this group have trouble with the basic questions, 'Why would Rossi try to pull such a brazen fraud? How did he expect to get away with it?' Answer -- Some people crave control. For some, control is much more important than money. And Rossi has succeeded. He's hijacked the LENR agenda, which has derailed countless sincere and promising research efforts."

- Brian Scanlan, in an e-mail to LENR community (April 11, 2016)
Krivit sends Darden an e-mail and asks "How, when and why did you come to such a radically different perspective" about the veracity of Rossi's E-Cat between Sept. 27, 2015, and April 8, 2016?" Darden did not respond. (April 12, 2016)
"Like rats deserting a sinking ship."
"FredZ777" on (April 15, 2016)
It is awful. Especially because [Rossi's] target is IH, an altruistic company which is doing such much good for cold fusion. Here is something way down on the list of Disagreeable Outcomes from this scandal. When the final story breaks and the extent of the deception is made public, I will have to contact Steve Krivit and admit that he was right all along, and Rossi really was as bad as he thought. I feel I owe him that.
- Jed Rothwell, in an e-mail to LENR community (April 16, 2016)
Rossi gets $11M simply by claiming to make large amounts of energy without any understanding of what he is doing. Now we discover the support was based on ignorance of what Rossi was actually doing. Not only have the good results been ignored, a lot of time has been wasted with people trying to explain and replicate an illusion.

You ask what Rossi has contributed. He has shown how not to develop LENR as commercial power. He has shown the flaws in scientific education the subject seems to attract. He has revealed a total absence of common sense when investments are made in LENR. If people really want LENR to be available in our lifetimes, we need to learn from this colossal mistake and do the job better.
- Edmund Storms in an e-mail to LENR community (May 16, 2016)