Validation of Excess Power Observations by Independent Laboratories
Excerpted from Excess Heat & Why Cold Fusion Research Prevailed, 2nd Ed., courtesy of Charles Beaudette

"After 1989, those willing to commit time to the field gradually brought forth increasingly well designed experiments. The seven cases described in some detail in this chapter plus two cases described in Chapters 1 and 4 offer confirmation of Fleischmann and Pons’s claim to have observed anomalous power.

Dr. Edmund Storms collected reports of anomalous power corroboration in March 1995, at the end of the first six years of cold fusion research.[1] Each had been reported in a published technical paper—an unusual protocol in science where only the second occurrence was ordinarily needed to confirm a claim of discovery. (The listed decimal number is the reported excess power maximum value in watts.)"

Researcher Year Reference Country Max Excess
Power (watts)


2 Japan
1990 3 USA


1991 4 Italy


1992 5 Italy
1991 6 USA
1994 7 Italy
1990 8 Japan
1991 9 Italy
1989 10 USA
1992 11 Japan
1994 12 USA
1990 13 USA
1989 14 USA
1990 15 Sweden
1993 16 Japan
1992 17 Japan
1992 18 USA
1992 19 Japan
1990 20 Taiwan
1991 21 Korea


1990 22 China

Experimental corroboration of anomalous power was now well advanced. The variety of the experiments made any attempt to refute these reports a daunting task as it must be done without exception. Such an undertaking would only be meaningful if presented as a full-length report published in a peer-reviewed journal. The preponderance of experimental evidence was now in support of anomalous power because of its successful replication in many independent laboratories.



1. Storms, Edmund, “Critical Review of the “Cold Fusion” Effect,” (preprint, 1993). Subsequently updated in 2001 in Cold Fusion: An Objective Assessment, Table 2.

2. Aoki, T., Y. Kurata, and H. Ebihara, “Study of Concentration of Helium and Tritium in Electrolytic Cells with Excess Heat Generation,” (Trans. of Fusion Technology, vol. 26, no. 4T, pt 2), p. 214.

3. Appleby, A. John, J. Kim Young, Oliver J. Murphy, and Supramaniam Srinivasan, “Anomalous Calorimetric Results During Long-Term Evolution of Deuterium on Palladium from Alkaline Deuteroxide Electrolyte,” (First Annual ICCF-1, Nat. CF Institute, SLC, Utah, 1990), p. 32.

4. Bertalot, L., L. Bettinali, F. De Marco, V. Violante, P. De Logu, T. Dikonimos Makris, and A. La Barbera, “Analysis of Tritium and Heat Excess in Electrochemical Cells with Pd Cathodes,” (S.I.F., “The Science of CF”, Proceedings ACCF-2, June 29, 1991, Como, Italy), p. 3.

5. Bertalot, L., F. De Marco, A. De Ninno, A. La Barbera, F. Scaramuzzi, V. Violante, and P. Zeppa, “Study of Deuterium Charging in Palladium by the Electrolysis of Heavy Water: Search for Heat and Nuclear Ashes,” H. Ikegami, ed., (University Academy Press, Frontiers of CF, 1993). p. 365.

6. Bush, Robert T., “Cold ‘Fusion’: The Transition Resonance Model Fits Data on Excess Heat, Predicts Optimal Trigger Points, and Suggests Nuclear Reaction Scenarios,” (Fusion Technology, 19, 1991). p. 313. Eagleton, R. D., and R. T. Bush, “Calorimetric Experiments Supporting the Transmission Resonance Model for CF,” (Fusion Technology, 20, 1991), p. 239.

7. Celani, F. A., A. Spallone, P. Tripoli, A. Nuvoli, A. Petrocchi, D. DiGioacchino, M. Boutet, P.Marini, and V. Di Stefano, “High Power Microsecond Pulsed Electrolysis for High Deuterium Loading in Pd Plates” (Trans. of Fusion Technology, vol. 26, no. 4T, pt.2), p. 127. Celani, F., A. Spallone, P. Tripoli, and A. Nuvoli, “Measurements of Excess Heat and Tritium During Self-Biased Pulsed Electrolysis of Pd-D2O,” H. Ikegami, ed., (University Academy Press, Frontiers of C.F., 1993), p. 93.

8. Fleischmann, Martin, Stanley Pons, Mark R. Anderson, Lian Jun Li, and Marvin Hawkins, “Calorimetry of the Palladium—Deuterium—Heavy Water System” (Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry, 287, July 25, 1990), p. 293.
Fleischmann, Martin, Stanley Pons, and Marvin Hawkins, “Electrochemically Induced Nuclear Fusion of Deuterium,” (Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry, 261-2A, April 10, 1989), p. 301. Fleischmann, Martin, and Stanley Pons, “Heat After Death,” (Trans. of Fusion Technology, vol. 26, no. 4T, pt.2), p. 87.

9. Gozzi, D., P. L. Cignini, M. Tomellini, S. Frullani, F. Garabaldi, F. Ghio, M. Jodice, and G. M. Urciuoli, “Multicell Experiments for Searching Time-Related Events in CF,” (Proc. ACCF-2, Como, Italy, June 29, 1991 The Science of CF, vol. 33, (T. Bressani, E. Del Giudice, and G. Preparata, eds.), p. 21. Gozzi, D., P. L. Cignini, L. Petrucci, M. Tomellini, and G. De Maria, “Evidences for Associated Heat Generation and Nuclear Products Release in Pd Heavy-Water Electrolysis,” (Il Nuovo Cimento, 103, 1990), p. 143. Gozzi, D., R. Caputo, P. L. Cignini, M. Tomellini, G. Gigli, G. Balducci, E. Cisbani, S. Frullani, F. Garabaldi, M. Jodice, and G. M. Urciuoli, “Helium-4 Quantitative Measurements in the Gas Phase of CF Electrochemical Cells,” (EPRI, Proceedings: ICCF-4, vol. I), p. 6-1.

10.Guruswamy, S. J. G. Byrne, J. Li, and M. E. Wadsworth;, “Metallurgical Aspects of the Electrochemical Loading of Palladium with Deuterium,” (Workshop on CF Phenomena, Santa Fe, NM, May 23, 1989).

11.Hasegewa, N., N. Hayakawa, Y. Tsuchida, and Y. Yamamoto, “Observations of Excess Heat During Electrolysis of 1M LiOD in a Fuel Cell Type Closed Cell,” (EPRI, Proc. ICCF-4, vol. I, December 6, 1993), p. 3-1. Hasegawa, N., K. Kunimatsu, T. Ohi, and T. Terasawa, “Observation of Excess Heat During Electrolysis of 1M LiOD in a Fuel Cell Type Closed Cell,” H. Ikegami, ed., (Univ. Academy Press, Frontiers of CF, 1993), p. 377.

12.Hugo, Mark, “A Home CF Experiment,” (EPRI, Proceedings ICCF-4, vol. 2, December 12, 1993), p. 22-1.

13.Hutchinson, D. P., J. Bullock, C. A. Bennet, G. L. Powell, and R. K. Richards, “Initial Calorimetry Experiments in the Physics Division—ORNL,” (Oak Ridge Nat. Lab, ORNL/TM-11356, May 1990).

14.Bockris, John O’M., N. J. C. Packham, et al., “Sporadic Observation of the Fleischmann–Pons Heat Effect,” (Electrochemica Acta, vol. 34, no. 9, 1989), p. 1315.

15.Lewis, Derek; and Kurt Skold, “A Phenomenological Study of the Fleischmann–Pons Effect,” (Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry, 294, November 9, 1990), p. 275.

16.Okamoto, M., Y. Yoshinaga, M. Aida, and T. Kusunoki, “Excess Heat Generation Voltage Deviation and Neutron Emission in D2O-LiOD Systems,” (Trans. of Fusion Technology, vol. 26, no.4T, pt.2, 1994), p. 176.

17.Ota, K., H. Yoshitake, O. Yamazaki, M. Kuratsuka, K. Yamaki, K. Ando, Y. Iida, and N. Kamiya, “Heat Measurement of Water Electrolysis Using Pd Cathode and the Electrochemistry,” (Trans. of Fusion Technology, vol. 26, no. 4T, pt 2, 1994), p. 138.

18.Storms, Edmund, “Measurement of Excess Heat from a Pons-Fleischmann-Type Electrolytic Cell Using Palladium Sheet,” (Fusion Technology, 23, 1993), p. 230. Storms, Edmund, “Some Characteristics of Heat Production Using the “Cold Fusion”
Effect,” (Trans. of Fusion Technology, vol. 26, no. 4T, pt 2, 1994), p. 96.

19.Takahashi, A., T. Iida, T. Takeuchi, H. Miyamaru, and A. Mega, “Anomalous Excess Heat by D2O/Pd Cell Under L-H Mode Electrolysis,” H. Ikegami, ed., (Universal Academy Press, Frontiers of CF, 1993), p. 79. Takahashi, Akito, “Nuclear Products by D2O/Pd Electrolysis and Multibody Fusion,” (Elsevier, Proc Fourth Int ISEM Symposium on Nonlinear Phenomena in
Electromagnetic Fields, Nagoya, Japan 26, 1922, Supplement to vol. 3 of Int. J. of Applied Electromagnetics in Materials).

20.Yang, C. -S., C. -Y. Liang, T. -P. Perng, L. -J. Yuan, C. -M. Wang, C. -C. Wang, “Observation of Excess Heat and Tritium on Electrolysis of D2O,” (Proc. CF Symp., 8th World Hydrogen Energy Conf., July 22, 1990), p. 95.

21.Yun, K-S., J-B. Ju, B-W. Cho, S-Y. Park, “Calorimetric Observation of heat Production During Electrolysis of 0.1 M LiOD_D2O Solution,” (Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry, 306, 1991), p. 279.

22.Zhang, Z. L., B. Z. Yan, M. G. Wang, J. Gu, and F. Tan, “Calorimetric Observation Combined with the Detection of Particle Emissions During the Electrolysis of Heavy Water,” (Proc. Anomalous Nuclear Effects in Deuterium /Solid Systems, Provo, Utah, October 22, 1990), p. 572.