News Flashes By Talbot Chubb
Sept. 12, 2003

(Click here for Oct. 13, 2003, News Flash)

(Source: New Energy Times) Nuclear reactions have been replicated at Osaka University.  The ICCF10 international gathering of "low energy nuclear reaction (LENR)" scientists has just been completed in Cambridge, Massachusetts. The results presented at this meeting seem destined to affect the course of solid state and nuclear science. Probably the most important of the results were those concerned with a unique form of nuclear transmutation reported a year ago by Iwamura et al. of Mitsubishi Heavy Industries. (Click here for their papers from ICCF-7, ICCF-9). The Mitsubishi transmutations occur on a deuterided metal substrate. The transmutations convert carefully deposited surface cesium atoms into the rare earth praseodymium. These transmutation reactions have now been duplicated by Osaka University scientists. They have repeated the transmutations several times. The Osaka praseodymium product has been verified by neutron activation analysis (NAA) at the Japan Atomic Energy Institute.

Meanwhile, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries has continued to make progress. The Mitsubishi scientists have further confirmed the identification of the praseodymium product, using a number of independent diagnostic techniques. They have shown that the transmutation occurs both with chemically deposited and ion-implanted cesium atoms. Surface profiling studies have been carried out and have located where the reaction occurs by measuring the depth distribution of cesium loss and praseodymium creation. The results show that the nuclear reaction is a surface or near-surface reaction on the substrate metal. Precise chemical analyses of the bulk metal substrate have shown that the praseodymium nuclear product is much too plentiful to be due to impurity migration from the bulk.

In the Mitsubishi process, a nuclear active form of deuterium is created from a flowing stream of deuterium atoms inside a metal. The flowing stream is forced to encounter and overcome specially designed internal diffusion barriers. A new form of active deuterium is created during this inhibited diffusion process. The active deuterium is able to spread out and interact with the nuclei of target atoms despite the deuteron charge. The nuclear reactions are of a specific type. They are deuteron addition reactions in which 4 deuterons (or 2 alpha particles) are absorbed by a target nucleus. The cesium conversion reactions can be viewed as the inverse of alpha-particle radioactive decays, which were discovered and characterized by Becqueral, Curie, and Rutherford near the end of the 19th century. The cesium reaction has been called a 2-alpha addition reaction. The full range of addition reactions that can occur using nuclear active deuterium has yet to be determined. The Mitsubishi work identified both: (1) a reproducible method for creating the active deuterium, and (2) a clear diagnostic method that quantifies its presence.

The Osaka and Mitsubishi studies provide solid evidence that deuteron or alpha-addition nuclear reactions can be made to reproducibly occur on solid metal at a temperature below that of boiling water. The new results were reported by Iwamura of Mitsubishi Heavy Industries and Higashiyama of the Nuclear Engineering Department of Osaka University. The Osaka low energy nuclear work is lead by Akito Takahashi. The original Mitsubishi discoveries have been published in English in the internationally respected Japan Journal of Applied Physics (Iwamura et al., 2002), and are available on the web at at http://jjap.ipap.jp/journal/pdf/JJAP-41-7R/4642.pdf.

The new discoveries remind one of the beginnings of neutron-capture physics. In 1932 Chadwick discovered the neutron. His neutrons were produced by the impact of alpha particles on beryllium. Within a few years a large number of previously non-existing types of nuclei were synthesized by exposure of various target elements to neutron irradiation. During these neutron-absorption studies uranium fission was discovered and the new element plutonium was synthesized. By the end of 1942 the first controlled nuclear reactor was already in operation. A nuclear power plant was generating electricity in 1955.

It seems likely that the larger international community will build on the Japanese work. Further attempts to replicate the Mitsubishi protocol are in progress. Hubler at the U.S. Naval Research Lab announced plans for replication testing in consultation with the Mitsubishi scientists. It is to be hoped that the world community will quickly join in an effort to better understand the new active deuterium matter form, its reaction physics, and its usefulness in generating safe nuclear energy heat.

Evidence for Nuclear Reactions on a Metal Surface

News Flash By Talbot Chubb
Oct. 13, 2003

The 10th International Conference on Cold Fusion (ICCF10) was held in Cambridge, MA, August 24-29. There were some interesting research results that are important to nuclear and solid state physics. The new results will likely have an impact on the acceptance of cold fusion as main stream science. Most physicists do not believe that nuclear reactions can occur in condensed matter at near room temperature. The new results are very clean and seem to refute this belief.

The new results were from Japan. Maybe the most important result was confirmation of studies published a year ago by Iwamura et al. in the Japan Journal of Applied Physics. This 2002 Iwamura paper described experiments at Mitsubishi Heavy Industries. The experiments showed a gradual transmutation of surface cesium into praseodymium caused by a deuterium permeation flow through a supporting Pd metal membrane at 70C. This change in surface composition requires the nuclear reaction Cs133 + 4 deuterons --> Pr-141. The membrane contained five 2-nm CaO internal diffusion "barriers". The studies were successfully repeated 6 times. Analogous transmutations of Sr-88 into Mo-96 were repeated 3 times. No transmutations occurred with H 2 permeation, or when D2 was used with a membrane that lacked internal diffusion barriers. At the ICCF10 meeting Takahashi's Nuclear Engineering group at Osaka University reported replication of the Mitsubishi process. Also, their Pr nuclear product was independently confirmed by neutron activation analysis at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute.

The Mitsubishi group has continued their own investigations. In the initial work a large fraction of a monolayer of Cs was deposited chemically on the surface of a Pd membrane to begin each experiment. Part of the new Mistubishi work used ion implanted Cs. Iwamura reported that the same transmutations occurred with the ion-implanted Cs as with the chemically deposited Cs. The Iwamura group then carried out surface profiling studies on the Cs depletion and the Pr buildup. They showed that the transmutations all occurred in a thin surface layer, i.e., within 10 nm of the surface. The deeper ion-implanted Cs was not affected. They tested the possibility that the observed Pr might be a result of chemical migration within the Pd substrate. Chemical analysis of the virgin metal membrane showed that there was insufficient Pr impurity concentration in the Pd substrate to explain the results by chemical migration. The research team added new diagnostics, like near edge x-ray absorption analysis, which further supported their surface atom identifications. They also showed that during their permeation runs, the amount of Pr buildup was directly proportional to the integrated deuterium permeation flow. This permitted calculating a proportionality constant or "cross section". They confirmed that the cross section for surface Cs was greater than for surface Sr, which undergoes a parallel reaction.

The above transmutations can be called "alpha-addition transmutations", since nuclearly-paired deuterons resemble nuclear alpha particles, which are emitted in many nuclear decays. The transmutations are not cold fusion results per se, but are likely part of the same "active deuterium" physics that is responsible for deuteron cold fusion. There is a theory framework which was presented at ICCF10, which seems to explain active deuterium reactions using a wave equation, wave function formalism.