National Science Foundation and Electric Power Research Institute (NSF/EPRI) Workshop on Anomalous Effects in Deuterided Metals
October 16-18, 1989, Washington, D.C., Published: August 1993 x
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Proceedings: NSF/EPRI Workshop on Anomalous Effects in Deuterided Metals
October 16-18, 1989, Washington, D.C., Published: August 1993

Report Summary

Attempts to confirm Fleischmann and Pons's observations of cold fusion phenomena have met with inconsistent results. This second workshop on this topic brought together skeptics and advocates to facilitate communication, to examine closely the experimental results, and to identify research issues.

The majority of attempts to confirm cold fusion phenomena have been unsuccessful. Although some researchers have confirmed portions of the Fleischmann and Pons experiment, these results have been sporadic and difficult to reproduce. The first workshop on this topic, sponsored by the Department of Energy, was held in May 1989 in Santa Fe, New Mexico.

• To facilitate communication and collaboration among researchers from different laboratories/disciplines
• To evaluate data gathered since the Santa Fe Workshop
• To consider possible theoretical explanations of the anomalous effects and the implication of these explanations for future research

As a follow-up to the Santa Fe Meeting, the National Science Foundation and EPRI cosponsored a workshop October 16-18, 1989, in Washington, D.C. Thirty presentations by workshop participants addressed issues of nuclear byproducts, excess heat, and possible theoretical mechanisms for cold fusion.

Three subgroups met separately to consider these issues and make recommendations for future experiments and other research in these areas.

Key Points
• The scientific and/or technological significance of cold fusion ultimately will be determined experimentally.
• Procedures must be developed to facilitate reproducibility of an individual laboratory's results by other laboratories.
• Collaboration among researchers from laboratories reporting positive results and those reporting negative results is critical to efforts to evaluate the anomalous effects.
• A convincing set of experimental data should include positive, nonsporadic, simultaneous measurements of excess heat and nuclear byproducts.

Editorial Committee
John Appleby, Texas A&M Univ.
Nate Hoffman, Rockwell ETEC
Thomas R. Schneider, EPRI
Harold Szu, NSWC, White Oak
Paul Werbos, NSF

Managing Editor
Thomas R. Schneider

Technical Editing
Henry Aeroeste
John Appleby

Production Editing
Carolee DeWitt, Wm. Nesbit & Associates



The Workshop on Anomalous Effects in Deuterated Metals was held October 16-18. 1989 in Washington. D.C. The workshop was cosponsored by the Electric Power Research Institute and the National Science Foundation.

The objectives of the workshop were to bring together skeptics and advocates to examine closely the anomalous effects reported by researchers who have attempted to confirm the cold fusion phenomena observed by Fleischmann and Pons and to consider possible theoretical explanations of the anomalous effects and their implications for future research. Key steps required to remove the ambiguities

surrounding cold fusion were identified and proposed, including the establishment of procedures to facilitate' the replication of one individual laboratory's results by other laboratories and collaboration among researchers through the exchange of personnel and experiments.

Presentations addressed issues of nuclear byproducts, excess heat, and possible theoretical mechanisms. Following the formal presentations a series of shorter presentations were given on more recent results. Subsequently three subgroups met to consider these topics and made recommendations for future experiments and other research in these areas.

These Proceedings contain papers submitted by authors of 30 presentations made at the workshop, the discussions that followed each presentation, and summaries prepared by the session chairs.

Editorial Perspective

This Proceedings is an outcome of a workshop cosponsored by EPRI and the National Science Foundation (NSF) on the controversial topic of "cold fusion" research. This workshop, held October 16-18. 1989, was the first forum that succeeded in achieving a frank and open scientific discussion on the controversial findings reported by Pons and Fleischmann and the various attempts to explain them. In addition. considerable insight was gained about how the experimental efforts could be improved. This aspect of the meeting's success is documented in this Proceedings. especially in the discussions and reports of the breakout sessions.

The assembly of this Proceedings has been the result of considerable effort by several members of the editorial committee. We were ably assisted by Henry Aeroeste and Carolee DeWitt. who provided scientific and production editing support. respectively. Raw transcripts of the discussions were provided by AAA Capital; these were edited by John Appleby with support from Henry Aeroeste.

Credits and thanks for the sponsorship of this workshop go to the management of NSF and EPRI who were willing to make the session possible even in the face of considerable controversy. The success of the meeting. however. was the result of the participants. A very high degree of professionalism was exhibited by all in attendance. and both skeptics and advocates engaged in constructive discussions.

The passage of time between the workshop and publication of this Proceedings has provided some additional perspective on this subject. Some of the measurements reported herein appear to be artifacts. unreproducible results, or mistakes. At this time. no clear evidence exists that "excess heat" is a result of a nuclear process. In general. the search for the kernels of real data has been difficult. and the relationships between all the anomalous effects are not yet understood. The final chapter of this saga is still to be written. My hope is that this Proceedings will help those interested in the history of this controversial subject better understand both the degree of scientific uncertainty and the chaotic state of knowledge that existed at the time this workshop was held.

Thomas R. Schneider
Managing Editor

Part 1: Overview
1 Remarks of Dr. Edward Teller: Anomalous Effects on Deuterided Metal

2 Electrochemistry of The Palladium D 2 0 System--Nathan Lewis

3 Calorimetry of the Palladium-D-D 2 0 System--Martin Fleischmann and Stanley Pons

4 The Palladium-Hydrogen System--T.B. Flanagan

Part 2: Nuclear Products
5 Recent Results for Electrolytic Tritium Production at Los Alamos--Edmund Storms, Carol Talcott, and M.A. David

6 Observation of Neutrons During Electrolysis of Liod Solutions--W.G. Pitt, J.N. Harb, and C.J. Farahmandi

7 Update on the Measurement of Neutron Emission From Ti Samples in Pressurized D 2 Gas--Howard O. Menlove, E. Garcia, and Steven E. Jones

8 A Search for Neutrons and Gamma Rays Associated with Tritium Production In Deuterided Metals--Kevin L. Wolf, D.R. Lawson, Nigel J.C. Packham, and J.C. Wass

9 Electrochemistry, Anomalous Heat and Tritium Production--John O'Mara Bockris

10 Mass/Charge Anomalies in Pd after Electrochemical Loading with Deuterium--Deborah R. Rolison and W.E. O'Grady

11 Comments about Diagnostics for Nuclear Reaction Products from Cold Fusion--George H. Miley, M. Ragheb, and Heinrich Hora

12 Sources of Experimental Error in Measuring Nuclear Products Associated with the Anomalous Behavior of Deuterium/Palladium Systems--Nathan J. Hoffman

13 Tritium Measurement: Methods, Pitfalls. And Results--C. Talcott, E. Storms, R. Jalbert, and M.A. David

14 Review of Calorimetric Data--Alan J. Bard

Part 3: Excess Heat
15 Calorimetric Measurements of Excess Power During the Cathodic Charging of Deuterium into Palladium--Richard A. Oriani, J.C. Nelson, S.K. Lee and J.H. Broadhurst

16 Metallurgical Aspects of The Electrochemical Loading of Palladium with Deuterium--S. Guruswamy, J.G. Byrne, J. Li and M.E. Wadsworth

17 Anomalous Calorimetric Results During Long-Term Evolution of Deuterium on Palladium from Alkaline Deuteroxide Electrolyte--A. J. Appleby, Y.J. Kim, O.J. Murphy, And S. Srinivasan

18 Experiments on Excess Heat Generation upon Electrochemical Insertion of Deuterium into Palladium--Steven Crouch-Baker, J.A. Ferrante, T.M. Gur, G. Lucier, M. Schreiber, And Robert A. Huggins

19 Electrochemical Kinetic and Thermal Studies of the Pd/Liod System--Michael C.H. McKubre, R.C. Rocha--Filho, P.C. Searson, S.I. Smedley, Francis L. Tanzella, R.D. Weaver, B. Chexal, Thomas Passell and Joseph Santucci

20 Investigation of Phenomena Occurring During D~O Electrolysis at a Palladium Cathode--R.R. Adzic, D. Gervaslo, I. Bae, B. Cahan, And E. Yeager

21 Remarks Made at The NSFEPRI Workshop--J.W. Bray

22 Initial Calorimetry Experiments in the Physics Division-ORNL--D.P. Hutchinson, C.A. Bennett, R.K. Richards, J. Bullock Iv and G.L. Powell

Part 4: Theory
23 Dr. Edward Teller: The Meshuganon

24 Calorimetric Measurements on Electrochemical Cells with Pd/D Cathodes--L. Redey, K.M. Myles, D. Dees, M. Krumpelt and D.R. Vissers

25 Exact Upper Bounds on Barrier Penetration in Media: Solid-State Effects Cannot Enhance Fusion Rates Enough--G. Baym

26 Nuclear Theory Hypotheses for "Cold Fusion"--Yeong E. Kim

27 Boson Dynamics of Deuterium in Metals--K.B. Whaley

28 Possible Mechanisms for Fusion in A Solid Lattice--M. Rabinowitz And D.H. Worledge

29 Fusion Within a Solid Through Solid State Effects: The Grand Identity Crisis--Scott R. Chubb And Talbot A. Chubb

30 Nuclear Fission Generated By a High Power Neutron Beam Shot Through a Cylindrical Palladium Lattice Packed Densely with Deuteron Fuel--H. Szu

31 Excess Heat--E. Yeager

32 Nuclear Products--George H. Miley

33 Theory--G. Baym

34 List of Invitees and Attendees