Andrea Rossi's 1 Megawatt Energy Catalyzer (E-Cat) Claim
Investigation and Compilation by Steven B. Krivit (2011-2016)  
Summary The Pied Piper of Bologna: Andrea Rossi and the E-Cat Con, A Six-Year Retrospective of the Andrea Rossi E-Cat Con
Link to Key Players Key Players and Promoters in Andrea Rossi's Energy Catalyzer (E-Cat) Scam
Link to Timeline Andrea Rossi Energy Catalyzer Master Timeline

Andrea Rossi
Image courtesy Mats Lewan
On Sept. 25, 2009, Rossi meets Michael Melich, a longtime "cold fusion" advocate, investor in and advisor to the defunct ENECO. On or before March 12, 2010, Melich is listed as one of Rossi's advisors. At the time, Melich is a research professor at the Naval Postgraduate School. He is a former NRL staff member. (Source: Rossi e-mails, June 14 interview with Krivit, McKubre presentation Oct. 11, 2011)
"In the years when he was working here,” Acerbi said, “Rossi didn't produce a single drop of oil, as far as we know. What he did was just create a media event. He was able to persuade — in a way that I cannot explain — a good portion of public opinion, and that's exactly what is hard for me to explain. He persuaded technicians in the field, scientists and important institutions, in the region of Lombardia that he was able to do magic."
- Luigi Acerbi, mayor of Lacchiarelli, Milan, Italy, after seeing Rossi's waste-to-oil scam, which Rossi called Petroldragon. (2011)
On Jan. 17, 2011, Melich ghost-writes and distributes a promotional report about the Jan. 14, 2011, Rossi device demonstration. Melich obtains raw data from Rossi or his colleagues, sends the data to three people he knows, and asks them to calculate the net production of excess heat. Melich writes the body of the report and includes calculations from two other scientists, one of whom is Melvin Miles. Melich gives his document to Rothwell, who uploads Melich's report to his LENR-CANR.org Web site, omitting all author/contributor names, and displaying only Rothwell's name as editor of the document.

Melich writes that the Rossi device produced 12.517 kilowatts of excess heat. Melich's report is the first publically available technical report on the Rossi device, preceding, by four days, the official technical report written by Levi.
On Jan. 19, 2011, Marianne Macy, Melich's wife and a contributing writer for Infinite Energy magazine, writes a promotional report on the Jan. 14, 2011, test, and Rothwell uploads it to LENR-CANR.org on Jan. 20, 2011. Macy writes that the Rossi device produces 12 kW of excess heat. Macy quotes Levi, who assures her that the water put into the system is completely vaporized.
"If it's a hoax, it's damn good one."
- Tony Tether, former head of DARPA, after seeing an E-Cat demonstration. (E-mail to Pamela Mosier-Boss, 2011)
On Jan. 24, 2011, Mahadeva Srinivasan, chairman of the 16th International Conference on Condensed Matter Nuclear Science (ICCF-16), to take place on Feb. 6-10, 2011, announces that he will include two last-minute presentations on the Rossi device in the conference program. One is by Celani, who observes the Jan. 14, 2011, test; the other is by Melich, one of Rossi's advisers. (Source: Srinivasan e-mail to LENR community)
On Jan. 24, 2011, Krivit sends an e-mail to Mahadeva Srinivasan and members of the ICCF-16 steering committee (Baldev Raj, R.K. Sinha, P.K. Iyengar) and warns them of the risks involved in making exceptions to the scientific program to allow last-minute presentations by Francesco Celani and Michael Melich about the Rossi claims.
On Feb. 6, 2011, at the 16th International Conference on Cold Fusion in Chennai, India, Francesco Celani, a physicist at the Italian National Institute of Nuclear Physics in Frascati, Italy, presents a highly critical report on the Rossi demonstration and identifies serious problems with the way Rossi and his colleagues measured and calculated the heat output. He is immediately followed by Melich.
"The history of independent inventors [inaudible]. Tesla is probably the most famous independent inventor who never realized anything from his inventions. And those lessons are known to us, and so [inaudible] and sometimes paranoid people are, in fact, justified [inaudible] and I would suggest that, in this case, this community has an interest in cutting [Rossi] a little slack and helping him."
- Michael Melich (Presentation on Rossi claims, ICCF-16, Chennai, India, Feb. 6, 2011) (Transcript) (Audio)
"When [Andrea Rossi’s Energy Catalyzers] show up at Home Depot, I’m going to go out there with my credit card."
- Robert Duncan,vice-provost of the University of Missouri, during the Saturday Science public lecture series (Feb. 11, 2011)
David Nagel, a retired NRL manager and longtime "cold fusion" promoter, gives a presentation at the 15th International Conference on Emerging Nuclear Energy Systems in San Francisco, California. Nagel displays a slide that says Rossi's 10 kW unit heated a factory in 2007 for 24 hours per day for six months that reduced the factory's electricity bill by 90% and that Rossi has 97 devices operating in four countries. (Presentation date could have been anytime during May 15-19, 2011)
Krivit publishes video of June 14, 2011, Rossi demonstration. (June 20, 2011)
Krivit publishes first report from on-site visit and interviews: "Report #1- First Report of Interviews With E-Cat Trio." (June 21, 2011)
Krivit publishes second report from on-site visit and interviews:"Report #2 - Energy Catalyzer: Scientific Communication and Ethics Issues." (June 21, 2011)
In June 2011, Michael Melich arranges meeting between potential investor Brian Scanlan and Rossi in Miami. Prior to the meeting, Scanlan had constructed a consortium committed to funding $15 million provided he and Rossi could establish mutually agreed-upon test conditions.

"The meeting lasted about two hours but from the beginning was fraught with conflict. I mentioned that Ed Storms would design and run the calorimetry of our proposed test, which in hindsight I realize ended the negotiations. A real scientist and experimentalist such as Ed was too risky for Rossi. Soon after, Rossi threw a tantrum, set a series of absurd conditions and left the room, followed by a train of his partners hoping to sooth the genius' hurt feelings. Although I wasn't amused at the time, I should have been. Rossi is a character sprung from Hollywood central casting."
- Brian Scanlan, in a April 11, 2016 e-mail to LENR community
"I think we need to consider the possibility that a "Yellow Press" is being created in the field of cold fusion."
- Edmund Storms in an e-mail to LENR community (June 29, 2011)

"Ed, we should also consider the fact that Krivit is correct in this case. If he's not, the E-Cat will be all the more remarkable considering Rossi's 'checkered' past."
- Matt McConnell in an e-mail to LENR community (June 29, 2011)

"If this is a fraud, Rossi has nothing to gain because he gets nothing if the claims are not real, which would soon be discovered if he is lying. In fact, he has a huge risk if the claims are incorrect for any reason."
- Edmund Storms in an e-mail to LENR community (June 29, 2011)

"John, Do you really think a scam could be done on such a large scale involving a respected university, investors, and governments? If you accuse Rossi of a scam, you are also accusing these people of being either dishonest or incompetent."
- Edmund Storms in an e-mail to LENR community (June 29, 2011)
Krivit publishes third report - a 200-page compilation of independent technical and engineering analyses of Rossi's device:"Report #3 - New Energy Times #37." (July 30, 2011)
"The entire field of cold fusion will grow rapidly and provide jobs for those of us who have slaved in the dark for so long. Personally, I hope [Rossi's apparatus] works as claimed, and I will do everything I can to promote the idea and work to make it better. Kicking Rossi at this stage just because the claim is not fully proven seems counter-productive to everyone. We desperately need the Rossi claim to be real."
- Edmund Storms in an e-mail to LENR community (Aug. 2, 2011)
Krivit publishes "Rossi’s Scientific Failure in Seven Steps" in English, Swedish and Italian. (July 30, 2011)
"People that I know and trust, have stood in front of Rossi's reactor and come away convinced that it really is doing more or less what Rossi claims. This includes my ex-program manager at DARPA [Bob Nowak], a very, very intelligent man a good friend of mine. Ampenergo ran two tests on September 25, 2009, in New Hampshire it was witnessed by a good friend of mine, also a very smart guy."
- Michael McKubre, Café Scientifique, SRI International public lecture series (Oct. 11, 2011)
"From my study of the Rossi claims, the possibility of this being fraud is zero. The possibility of it being real is 100%. The possibility of it being a successful product at this stage is 25%. Therefore, failure of the community to support Rossi would be contrary to everything the community has been trying to accomplish and contrary to the future of the world with respect to finding a clean energy. The stakes are too high to play games."
- Edmund Storms in an e-mail to LENR community (Nov. 17, 2011)
"In the recent months he (Iyengar) was very happy to learn of the development of the Ni-H Rossi reactor and the imminent commercialization of Cold Fusion/Low Energy Nuclear Reactions. Iyengar's bold and far-sighted stand on this controversial subject stands vindicated."
- Mahadeva Srinivasan, www.dnaindia.com, (Dec. 21, 2011)
On Oct. 26, 2012, Industrial Heat agrees to pay Rossi $100.5 million over three payments for a license to his E-Cat. First payment was $1.5 million, when the license agreement was executed. Second payment is to be $10 million, after successful completion of a 24-hour test performed by an independent expert responsible for validation. Third payment is to be $89 million after the successful completion of a 350-day test. (Source: Federal District Court Case 1:16-cv-21199-CMA)
"Even his supporters admit he lies as they excuse him for one reason or another."
- Paul Burns, ecatnews.com (Nov. 2, 2012)
Krivit publishes fourth report: "Report #4: Rossi’s NASA Test Fails to Launch." (Feb. 10, 2012)
On or about May 2, 2013, the 24-hour test for Industrial Heat is performed — in a location chosen and controlled by Rossi in Ferrara, Italy. Industrial Heat pays Rossi $10 million. (Source: Federal District Court Case 1:16-cv-21199-CMA)
On Feb. 19, 2015, the 350-day test performed for Industrial Heat — in a location chosen and controlled by Rossi in Florida — begins. (Source: Federal District Court Case 1:16-cv-21199-CMA)
On Sept. 27, 2015, Thomas Francis Darden II, the manager, president, and director of Industrial Heat, spoke favorably to Fortune magazine about Rossi's E-Cat. “Rossi’s was one of the first investments we made,” Darden said. “We’ve been seeing the creation of isotopes and energy releases at relatively low temperatures — 1,000 degrees centigrade — which could be a sign that fusion has occurred.”
"The job of generating interest has been done mostly by one man: Andrea Rossi. He did this with showmanship and scale (475 kW). Industrialists don't care about scientific oddities (at least in their day jobs). But if you can generate 100's of kW for an extended period, unplugged, no sane energy technologist could fail to pay attention."
- Michael McKubre in an e-mail to LENR community (Feb. 21, 2015)
Sometime between May 2, 2013 and Feb. 19, 2016, Industrial Heat raised $50 million from the Woodford Funds (including Woodford Patient Capital Trust, PLC and CF Woodford Equity Income Fund), predicated upon their claims that Industrial Heat had acquired Rossi's intellectual property. (Source: Federal District Court Case 1:16-cv-21199-CMA)
On Feb. 19, 2016, the 350-day test performed for Industrial Heat — in a location chosen and controlled by Rossi in Florida — finishes. (Source: Federal District Court Case 1:16-cv-21199-CMA)
On March 29, 2016, Rossi presents Industrial Heat with a test report, claims the test was successful, and demands the remaining $89 million; the third payment. The test results were validated, and the report was written by Fabio Penon. Industrial Heat had paid half of Penon's fee and Rossi paid the other half. Penon had previously worked for Rossi and, in 2012, written another report affirming the validity of Rossi's E-Cat. Industrial Heat had agreed to use Penon as the "independent expert responsible for validation."
On April 5, 2016, on the day that the third payment ($89 million) was due from Industrial Heat, Rossi sues Industrial Heat for non-payment of the $89 million and for attempting to steal his technology.
On April 8, 2016, Industrial Heat issued a statement and said that it “has worked for over three years to substantiate the results claimed by Mr. Rossi from the E-Cat technology — all without success.”
"It seems unrealistic that Rossi could be weaving such an enormous web of lies: he would have to be a brilliant psychopath to perpetuate the story for so many years."
- Bob Tinvan on E-CatWorld (April 8, 2016)
A freelance reporter working for a national magazine begins seeking comment for forthcoming story. (April 9, 2016)
"Several LENR experimentalists stopped their research given Rossi’s claims of megawatt excess power. Why research anomalous watts when Rossi claims a megawatt? But those claims continue to be unsubstantiated. Every one of the purported independent reports was neither independent, nor, properly controlled and conducted.

"LENR/LANR/CF had enough bad press amongst world-wide funding agencies and corporations dating back to March 23, 1989. But, even ignoring that, why fund anyone else when Rossi and his followers have taken over the discussion with their enormous claims? ... Don’t cut Rossi or any others so much slack. It demeans you, empowers them, and defrauds all of us."
- Larry Forsley, in an e-mail to LENR community (April 9, 2016)
"Naturally, some exaggeration, fraud, and lying would be involved because people do not like to give money without knowing the secret, which cannot be revealed."
- Edmund Storms in an e-mail to LENR community (April 10, 2016)
"Rossi sued before the money from Industrial Heat was due. Why the rush? Rossi wanted to strike first to paint himself as a victim before IH sues him for fraud. ...

"Take a look at 'How to Spot a Sociopath.' Most of us in this group have trouble with the basic questions, 'Why would Rossi try to pull such a brazen fraud? How did he expect to get away with it?' Answer -- Some people crave control. For some, control is much more important than money. And Rossi has succeeded. He's hijacked the LENR agenda, which has derailed countless sincere and promising research efforts."

- Brian Scanlan, in an e-mail to LENR community (April 11, 2016)
On April 12, 2016, Krivit sends Darden an e-mail and asks "How, when and why did you come to such a radically different perspective" about the veracity of Rossi's E-Cat between Sept. 27, 2015, and April 8, 2016? Darden did not respond.
"Like rats deserting a sinking ship."
"FredZ777" on ecatnews.com (April 15, 2016)
It is awful. Especially because [Rossi's] target is IH, an altruistic company which is doing such much good for cold fusion. Here is something way down on the list of Disagreeable Outcomes from this scandal. When the final story breaks and the extent of the deception is made public, I will have to contact Steve Krivit and admit that he was right all along, and Rossi really was as bad as he thought. I feel I owe him that.
- Jed Rothwell, in an e-mail to LENR community (April 16, 2016)
Rossi gets $11M simply by claiming to make large amounts of energy without any understanding of what he is doing. Now we discover the support was based on ignorance of what Rossi was actually doing. Not only have the good results been ignored, a lot of time has been wasted with people trying to explain and replicate an illusion.

You ask what Rossi has contributed. He has shown how not to develop LENR as commercial power. He has shown the flaws in scientific education the subject seems to attract. He has revealed a total absence of common sense when investments are made in LENR. If people really want LENR to be available in our lifetimes, we need to learn from this colossal mistake and do the job better.
- Edmund Storms in an e-mail to LENR community (May 16, 2016)


Andrea Rossi: Master of the Big Lie - Summary of His History with Energy Scams

Andrea Rossi is a convicted white-collar criminal with a string of failed energy ventures. His first energy scam took place between 1970 and 1990 when he convinced people that he could turn industrial waste into fuel. Rossi's company produced no fuel. Instead, it created toxic waste and environmental damage leaching chemicals like dioxin into the land and groundwater in the Milan, Italy, area. [1] Without providing any evidence, Rossi has assured his credulous supporters repeatedly that he was acquitted of all crimes (despite serving time in prison twice) and that his environmental disaster was the fault of a government conspiracy with the oil industry.

From 2001 to 2003, Rossi worked under a U.S. Army contract to make thermoelectric devices that he promised were superior to any other such device on the market. According to the Army report, [2] not one of the devices Rossi had agreed to deliver under contract worked as claimed. Specifically, the devices produced only 1 Watt of power. Rossi had claimed the devices would produce 800–1,000 Watts each. According to what Rossi told the Army, the failure of these devices was the result of poor workmanship by his subcontractor.

In 2011, Rossi began a series of public demonstrations in which he attempted to convince onlookers — some of them credentialed scientists — that, with hydrogen gas, nickel powder, and an assembly of copper pipes, he could produce 1 kilowatt (and later claimed 1 megawatt) of commercially useful excess heat. He said he could do so on demand for sustained periods. He gave the system the catchy name Energy Catalyzer, which was shortened by his Internet promoters to E-Cat.

Perhaps someday, low-energy nuclear reactions will produce such kilowatts and higher levels of heat production, but so far, commercially viable levels of heat production have been unattainable. The best heat-producing LENR experiments were performed at the University of Siena, Italy, in 1994 and produced 39 to 68 Watts of excess heat. [3] However, those researchers could not easily repeat the experiments at will, let alone enable other scientists to reproduce them.  

In 2011, I filmed Rossi in Italy while he demonstrated his Energy Catalyzer. At that time, he claimed it was producing kilowatts of steam. I noticed that only gentle puffs of steam were coming out, like those from a tea kettle on low. As soon as I posted the video on the Internet, engineers and scientists from around the world analyzed his experiment, figured out how he was deceiving onlookers and sent me their technical analyses. [4]

Mats Lewan, a Swedish technology journalist, collected data for Rossi three times, wrote technical reports based on the data he (Lewan) had collected, then wrote news stories based on his own technical reports. Lewan apparently didn't know that water expands 1,600 times when it turns to steam, creating very high pressures or high speeds. Two Swedish scientists, Hanno Essén and Sven Kullander, endorsed Rossi's claim sight-unseen based on Lewan's news stories. When they went to see Rossi's apparatus, they, too, didn't know about the water-to-steam expansion factor and, as Essén told me, didn't notice that a boiling-hot jet of high-pressure steam was not emanating from Rossi's apparatus. But they wanted to believe and were not willing to admit that they had been tricked.

After New Energy Times published a 200-page exposé on Rossi's steam trick, Rossi changed his experimental design to produce hot water instead of steam. Roland Pettersson, another Swedish scientist, examined that version of Rossi's device. He found that Rossi — supposedly an expert with the use of thermocouples — had placed them in the incorrect location in the experimental system, thus giving an inaccurate reading of the water temperature. But Pettersson wanted to believe the results and was not willing to admit that he had been deceived.

Rossi then got rid of the thermocouples and changed the experimental design to use radiant heat as the basis for thermal measurements.  

Pettersson, Essén and four scientific colleagues operated one of Rossi's devices and collected data for him. The experiment was co-sponsored by the prominent Swedish electric research company Elforsk. The six scientists claimed they had performed an independent test (not even a replication) of his device — despite the fact that Rossi had built the device, was present during the experiment, and had handled the samples that were subsequently analyzed with sensitive mass spectroscopy for elemental anomalies and isotopic shifts. Elforsk was not willing to admit that it had been misled. [5]

There is a common saying that, within every fraud, there is a small kernel of truth, and certainly, this has worked to Rossi's advantage. Yes, he did meet NASA engineers in Huntsville, Alabama. But no, they declined to work with him. Yes, the University of Bologna did initiate a research agreement with Rossi. They, too, declined to work with him. Yes, Rossi did meet with wealthy investors, such as John Preston and Robert King. They, too, passed on the opportunity to invest in Rossi's E-Cat technology.

Rossi developed an Internet fan club by appealing to people's hopes and dreams of a better world, powered by clean, cheap energy. These are wonderful ideals. Starting in 2010, Rossi engaged in a campaign to build his army of followers by spending day and night directly and personally interacting with them and answering their questions on his blog, which has the misleading title "Journal of Nuclear Physics." At last count, he had exchanged more than 28,500 messages with them. By 2011, Rossi, like a Pied Piper, had inspired his fans to build more than 80 Web sites to promote his Energy Catalyzer, despite the fact that a working commercial system has never materialized in the hands of any identified customer and was seen only in crude prototype form in Rossi's garage.  

Along the way, even some of his best supporters, like Paul Burns (a.k.a. Paul Story), realized that Rossi regularly lied to them. Burns warned on Nov. 2, 2012, that Andrea Rossi was acting like a fraudster.

"The world needs a miracle more than anyone’s misplaced pride," Burns wrote. "Until then, if you have given this man money, it is time to push him hard. Do not give him anything unless any promise he makes is accompanied by hard evidence. The first people to prod Madoff got their money back before it all collapsed. You have been warned."

As far as I know, only one company has invested any money in Rossi's venture. It is Thomas Darden's Industrial Heat, a project of Cherokee Investment Partners LLC, in Raleigh, North Carolina. Within days of the August 2013, transaction, Rossi purchased $2 million worth of commercial real estate in Miami Beach, Florida. Two months later, Rossi had purchased another $1 million worth of property. Meanwhile, the outcome of the $11 million invested by Darden and his 13 partners is uncertain.

There are legitimate researchers, good science, and credible organizations working in the field of LENRs. [6] This is not it.

Steven B. Krivit
Publisher and Senior Editor, New Energy Times

1. Rossi's Italian Financial and Environmental Criminal History
2. U.S. Army Report
3. Piantelli-Focardi Publication and Replication Path
4. The Failure of Rossi’s Energy Catalyzer, Caught on Video
5. Rossi Handles Samples in Alleged Independent Test of His Device
6. Publications and Presentations

Index of Key New Energy Times Energy Catalyzer Reports and Videos
Jan. 7, 2012 The Failure of Rossi’s Energy Catalyzer, Caught on Video
March 29, 2012 Rossi's Steam Trick: Lewan Knew
March 7, 2012 Report #5: Rossi's Profitable Career in Science
Feb. 10, 2012 Report #4: Rossi’s NASA Test Fails to Launch
Aug. 7, 2011 Rossi’s Scientific Failure in Seven Steps (Italian)
Rossi’s Scientific Failure in Seven Steps (Swedish)
Rossi’s Scientific Failure in Seven Steps (English)
July 30, 2011 Report #3 - New Energy Times #37
June 28, 2011 Report #2 - Energy Catalyzer: Scientific Communication and Ethics Issues
June 21, 2011 Report #1- First Report of Interviews With E-Cat Trio
June 19, 2011 Rossi’s Responses to “Preliminary Report”
June 19, 2011 Levi’s Response to “Preliminary Report”
June 16, 2011 Preliminary Report of Interviews with E-Cat Trio Rossi, Focardi and Levi
Andrea Rossi 2011 E-Cat Scam Device Summary
In 2011, Andrea Rossi connected a few small copper pipes and, on one end, hooked them to a small peristaltic pump. He hooked the pump to a small jug of water and fed the water through the pipes. Outside the center of the pipe assembly, he placed an electric heater. Inside, he said, he place a secret nickel-powder-based catalyst. He said his secret catalyst was heating the water much more than was possible by the electrical heat alone. In fact, he said, it was turning all the water into steam. According to his measurements, he put in 770 watts of power. He said that he got an equivalent output of 4,900 watts. The evidence for this, he said, was the steam generated by the device. However, there was no visible steam coming directly out of the device. Instead, there was a rubber hose attached to the other end of the pipe, and the hose was feeding hot water and a tiny amount of steam into a drain hole in the wall. (Reference: The Failure of Rossi’s Energy Catalyzer, Caught on Video)

Energy Catalyzer Scam Investigation Summary
Sometime before 2011, Rossi began trying to use and commercialize the low-energy nuclear research developed by Francesco Piantelli, a retired Italian biophysicist, and his colleagues. Piantelli began his LENR research in 1989, when he observed something unusual taking place in one of his experiments. Initially, Piantelli didn't pay close attention to it. But after he saw the Martin Fleischmann and Stanley Pons "cold fusion" announcement, he looked more closely at his own work. Piantelli found that his device, too, was producing anomalous excess heat and nuclear effects. But Piantelli was working with nickel and hydrogen gas, a very different configuration from that of Fleischmann and Pons. (Piantelli Group Documents)

Piantelli also knew that the idea of room-temperature fusion was highly unlikely. More significantly, he was working with a hydrogen system rather than a deuterium system; therefore, the idea of fusion was not even a consideration for him. (See 2008 and 2010 ACS presentations here Publications and Presentations)

For many years, Piantelli worked with his colleague Sergio Focardi in LENR research. Both men have legitimate academic credentials and scientific backgrounds. Together, they have a long history of credible LENR research, some of which, they published in peer-reviewed journals. The pair never got fully reproducible or practical results. (Overview of H-Ni Systems: Old Experiments and New Setup)

I met Piantelli and interviewed him in his personal lab in 2007. Both he and Focardi were retired by then. I wrote two articles about their work the following year. Right around that time, Rossi approached Piantelli and asked to work with him. Meanwhile several Americans who had heard of my interest in the Piantelli group's work began asking for my assistance to make contact with Piantelli.

When Rossi approached Piantelli, he declined to work with Rossi. Instead, Rossi approached Focardi, who was old, in poor health, and eager for a second, perhaps last chance.

"I received a phone call from Rossi to speak together about a problem, and from the meeting that we had after the phone call, I understood that Rossi was bringing new ideas in the field and it was worthwhile to work together," Focardi said. "I understood that the problem of getting reactions had been resolved. Just from the first experiment that we made together, I understood the problems had been resolved."

On Jan. 13, 2011, Focardi told the Italian media that he made "cold fusion" a reality. I was skeptical but open-minded. But, on Feb. 23, 2011, when technology journalist Mats Lewan, who has a degree in physics, published his report of an 18-hour water-only test performed by Giuseppe Levi, a physics professor at the University of Bologna, I began to change my mind. Levi hadn't performed an independent test or collected valid, but I only learned this later. When Lewan reported on April 6, 2011, that two Swedish physicists had conducted independent verifications of Rossi's claim, I became more convinced. Again, I was misled by Lewan, the physicists had not conducted independent verifications. based on what I believed were accurate news stories by Lewan, I booked my flight to Italy on April 17. But I still knew very little about the device or how it worked. Lewan's article "Ny Teknik Tested the Energy Catalyzer" on May 2, 2011, increased my confidence in the reality of Rossi's claim even further.

In the days leading up to my site visit, I began asking Rossi and Levi detailed questions about the experimental design and their data. But they had no answers or data for me. I asked Rossi for a schematic of his experiment, but he didn't have one. I became concerned, but I hoped things would get better once I met with them in person. Things didn't get better. Based on my best understanding of the system at the time, I drew a schematic before I got to Italy and asked Rossi to confirm its accuracy once I met with him. Rossi did confirm the accuracy of my schematic and, in fact, Michael Nelson of NASA later used my schematic when Rossi came to meet with Nelson and a few dozen other scientists at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, Alabama.

When I interviewed Levi on June 14, 2011, and asked for any kind of scientific evidence or data to support his endorsement of Rossi's device, he gave me only excuses.

When I interviewed Rossi on camera on June 15, 2011, I had to explain to him what a control experiment was. When I asked him to explain his "moment of discovery" to me, he couldn't, and he contradicted himself several times in his attempt. (Rossi Interview Transcript Excerpts)

Rossi unintentionally refuted his own claim on June 14, 2011, when he showed me his experiment as I was filming his demonstration in a rented industrial garage. (The Failure of Rossi’s Energy Catalyzer, Caught on Video). The steam flux exiting his device looked no greater than the amount and rate of steam expected from the electrical power he was feeding into the system. The garage was barren save for a few wooden benches and some folding tables and chairs. It was obvious that it had all been staged. Workers from the garage next door came to take the coffee machine back moments before I left.

As the diagram below shows, even if Rossi showed a visibly large flux of steam exiting his device (he didn't) and even if Rossi's steam expert used an instrument that was capable of measuring steam (he didn't), the design of Rossi's E-Cat provides a simple way for Rossi to feed unvaporized water down the drain and thus deceive observers.

Rossi's E-Cat is designed to conceal and feed unvaporized water down the drain and thus deceive observers who fail to notice the lack of a high flux of steam output.

Videotape shows Rossi emptying the hose and dumping water down the drain. The screen images below are from my video of Rossi's demonstration on June 14, 2011.

Rossi prepares to remove the hose from the drain hole in the wall to show the steam output.

But first Rossi drains water out of the hose before he removes it from the drain hole.

Rossi shows tiny puffs of low-pressure steam coming out of the hose. Rossi puts the hose back in the hole quickly because he knows that more hot water will soon come out of the hose.

Two months earlier, on April 28, 2011, another journalist caught Rossi on video playing with the input power controls when he should not have been. (The Failure of Rossi’s Energy Catalyzer, Caught on Video).

Until June 15, 2011, I had kept an open mind about Rossi's claim. He had been eager for my visit; he offered to pay for my flight and drive several hours to Milan to pick me up. I turned down his offer. In the two days I was there, we had a friendly, cordial relationship. At the end of my interview with him, he complimented me on my work and professionalism. He had been hospitable, gentlemanly and generous with his time. I recorded these sessions on video.

But I saw no evidence of Rossi's claim of extraordinary levels of excess heat. He, nor Focardi nor Levi showed me scientific data from any experiments to support their claims. Rossi seemed to have a poor understanding of steam and the proper devices to measure steam. Rossi's "steam expert," Gilberto Galantini, used a device that was, in fact, incapable of measuring steam quality.

Worse, the only visible steam was the equivalent of that produced by a tea kettle on low power. I wrote and published my first preliminary report the next day. It was the first time that any journalist had written anything critical about Rossi's Energy Catalyzer device.

Three days later, Rossi was no longer the gentleman he had been. He began calling me names and making public threats that he and his colleagues were taking legal action against me. Neither Rossi nor his colleagues sent any legal letter to me.

Throughout 2011, Rossi sought credibility for his claim of extraordinary levels of excess heat through scientific and academic validation. In 13 attempts, he and his group tried to demonstrate convincing experimental evidence for their claims. In all attempts, he and his group failed. They have no experimental evidence on which to base their extraordinary-energy claim. They never did.

The timeline of Rossi's story contains an extensive record of his factual inconsistencies and contradictions. (Master Timeline) However, after several years of declarations and promises, neither Focardi nor Rossi has provided either convincing scientific evidence or a device that the public can purchase.

The results of my investigation are here: http://newenergytimes.com/v2/sr/RossiECat/Andrea-Rossi-Energy-Catalyzer-Investigation-Index.shtml

Steven B. Krivit
Publisher and Senior Editor, New Energy Times

Energy Catalyzer Video Recordings
Sept. 3, 2011 New Energy Times Video Interview of Andrea Rossi (Filmed on June 15, 2011)
Rossi Interview Part 1
Rossi Interview Part 2
Rossi Interview Part 3
Rossi Interview Part 4
Rossi Interview Transcript Excerpts
Sept. 2, 2011 New Energy Times Video Interview of Daniele Passerini (Filmed on June 14, 2011)
Video interview
Sept. 1, 2011 New Energy Times Video Interview of David Bianchini (Filmed on June 14, 2011)
Video Interview
Aug. 25, 2011 New Energy Times Video Interview of Sergio Focardi (Filmed on June 14, 2011)
Focardi Interview Part 1
Focardi Interview Part 2
Focardi Interview Part 3
Focardi Interview Transcript Excerpts
Aug. 17, 2011 New Energy Times Video Interview of Giuseppe Levi (Filmed on June 14, 2011)
Levi Interview Part 1
Levi Interview Part 2
Levi Interview Part 3
Levi Interview Part 4
Levi Interview Part 5
Levi Interview Transcript Excerpts
July 30, 2011 Analysis of April 28, 2011, Ny Teknik Video of Andrea Rossi & His Energy Device
June 23, 2011 The Failure of Rossi’s Energy Catalyzer, Caught on Video PART 2/2 (Filmed on June 14, 2011)
June 20, 2011 The Failure of Rossi’s Energy Catalyzer, Caught on Video PART 1/2 (Filmed on June 14, 2011)
Energy Catalyzer Image Galleries
Image Gallery - Miscellaneous Images
Image Gallery - June 14-15, 2011
Image Gallery - Swedish Guests - March 29, 2011
Image Gallery - Energy Catalyzer Satire
Energy Catalyzer - Primary Resources
European Patent Office Records
Rossi's "Journal Of Nuclear Physics" Blog
Rossi Blog Reader
Andrea Rossi's Energy Catalyzer Network
Companies and Individuals Involved in Andrea Rossi's Energy Catalyzer (y)

Thermoelectric Device - Primary Resources
Report by U.S. Army Corps of Engineers

Andrea Rossi Biography and Petroldragon - Primary Resources
The Magic of Mr. Rossi - Selected Excerpts - May 5, 2011, Rai News 24 -TV, Italian Public Television
Petroldragon Story by Rossi and his Brief Biography - English
Petroldragon Story by Rossi and his Brief Biography - Italian
Rossi's Italian Financial and Environmental Criminal History
Excerpts about Andrea Rossi from Book by Luigi Bacialli, "Petrolio Dai Rifiuti"

Andrea Rossi - General References
Leonardo Technologies Inc. (Ohio)
Leonardo Corporation (New Hampshire and Florida)