APS 2007
2007 American Physical Society March Meeting
March 5-9, 2007, Denver, Colorado, USA

(Source: New Energy Times)
The March Meeting of the American Physical Society (APS), usually the largest physics meeting of the year anywhere, will take place at the Convention Center in Denver, March 5-9, 2007 (http://aps.org/meetings/march/). More than 7,000 scientists are expected to attend. The principal topics will be condensed matter nuclear physics, industrial applications, new materials, chemical and biological physics, fluids, polymers, and computation. A number of sessions will address social issues.

The March meeting is a great showcase for both fundamental new physics insights and applications of physics in all segments of the great technological cornucopia that affects all aspects of our lives.

The meeting will include two sessions on low energy nuclear reactions, with a total of 19 papers being presented. There will also be a hospitality event for those interested in the topic.

APS Cold Fusion Hospitality Evening
sponsored by Coolescence LLC

When: Monday, March 5, 6:30 - 8:30 p.m.

Where: The Peaks Lounge, Hyatt Regency Hotel at the Colorado Convention Center

What: Fajita bar, wine, beer and conversation

Session A31: Cold Fusion I
Sponsoring Unit: Division of Condensed Matter Physics
Chair: Scott Chubb, Naval Research Laboratory
Location: Colorado Convention Center – 401
Date/Time: Monday, March 5, 2007, 8 – 10 a.m.

8:00 - 8:12 a.m.


Cold Fusion -- An 18 Year Retrospective Short Description
Michael C.H. McKubre

18 years after the APS voted to refute the reality of Cold Fusion in Baltimore, it is appropriate to consider what has changed. Who was right? We will review the current state of knowledge from the perspective of what we know now compared to what we knew then. Discussion will be made of various avenues of research that we have followed from the original Fleischmann Pons proposal: some failed, some unresolved and some successful.     

8:12 - 8:24 a.m.


Production of High Energy Particles Using the Pd/D Co-Deposition Process
Pamela A. Mosier-Boss, Stanislaw Szpak, Frank E. Gordon

Using the Pd/D co-deposition technique, we have obtained evidence (i.e., heat generation, hot spots, mini-explosions, radiation, and tritium production) suggestive that nuclear reactions can and do occur within the Pd lattice. It was found that these reactions are enhanced in the presence of either an external electric or magnetic field. SEM analysis of the cathodes shows morphological features suggestive of localized melting of the palladium. EDX analysis of these features show the presence of new elements which result from transmutation. To verify that these new elements are indeed nuclear in origin, experiments have been conducted using CR-39 detectors, a commonly used etch-track detector for recording the emission of high energy particles such as alphas and protons. When the co-deposition reaction was conducted in either an external electric or magnetic field, numerous tracks due to high energy particles were clearly observed on the CR-39 detector in those areas where the cathode is in direct contact with the detector. 

8:24 - 8:36 a.m.


Accuracy of Cold Fusion Calorimetry
Melvin H. Miles, Martin L. Fleischmann

The cold fusion controversy centers on the precision and accuracy of the calorimetric systems used to measure excess enthalpy generation. For open, isoperibolic calorimetric systems, there is no true steady state during D2O+LiOD electrolysis. Exact calorimetric measurements, therefore, require modeling by a differential equation that accounts for all heat flow pathways into and out of the calorimetric systems. The improper use and misunderstanding of this differential equation is a major source of confusion concerning cold fusion calorimetric measurements. The use of a platinum cathode as a control showed that excess power due to the controversial recombination effect was measurable at 1.1 plus or minus 0.1 mW. Theoretical calculations using Henry's Law and Fick's Law of Diffusion yield approximately 1 mW for this effect due to oxygen reduction at the cathode. Palladium-boron alloy materials prepared at the Naval Research Laboratory have shown a remarkable ability to produce excess power effects in the range of 100 to 400 mW. The excess power increased to over 9000 mW during the final boil-off phase in one experiment. 

8:36 - 8:48 a.m.


Resonant Interaction, Approximate Symmetry, and Electromagnetic Interaction (EMI) in Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENR)
Scott Chubb

Only recently (talk by P.A. Mosier-Boss et al, in this session) has it become possible to trigger high energy particle emission and Excess Heat, on demand, in LENR involving PdD. Also, most nuclear physicists are bothered by the fact that the dominant reaction appears to be related to the least common deuteron(d) fusion reaction, d+d →α+γ. A clear consensus about the underlying effect has also been illusive. One reason for this involves confusion about the approximate (SU2) symmetry: The fact that all d-d fusion reactions conserve isospin has been widely assumed to mean the dynamics is driven by the strong force interaction (SFI), NOT EMI. Thus, most nuclear physicists assume: 1. EMI is static; 2. Dominant reactions have smallest changes in incident kinetic energy (T); and (because of 2), d+d →α+γ is suppressed. But this assumes a stronger form of SU2 symmetry than is present; d+d →α+γ reactions are suppressed not because of large changes in T but because the interaction potential involves EMI, is dynamic (not static), the SFI is static, and because the two incident deuterons must have approximate Bose Exchange symmetry and vanishing spin. A generalization of this idea involves a resonant form of reaction, similar to the de-excitation of an atom. These and related (broken gauge) symmetry EMI effects on LENR are discussed.    

8:48 - 9:00 a.m.

1.6 MHz Sonofusion Model and Measurement
Roger S. Stringham

Years of data collected by First Gate, involving various sonofusion systems, gains some support from recent extrapolations of hot fusion research. Consider the 10 4 k/sec of the high density low energy jet plasma of deuterons that originates from the collapse of the transient cavitation bubble (TCB), in D 2O that implants a target foil. And compare it to the jet plasma of Tokamak type plasmas with all their stability problems. Also consider the relevance of the imploding wire technology where the magnetohydrodynamic pressures exceed the crystal forces that bind atoms in wire conductors and inertial confinement fusion (ICF). Applying this developed technology to the TCB jet plasmas of sonofusion makes the transition between hot and “cold'' fusion more attractive. Our measurements show there is no long range radiation (gammas or neutrons) and 4He is the fusion product. These problems are addressed via coherence in the implanted high density transient deuteron Bosons (and proton Fermions) clusters in the heat producing target. 

9:00 - 9:12 a.m.


Selective Resonant Tunneling through Coulomb Barrier by Confined Particles in Lattice
X.Z. Li, Q.M. Wei, B. Liu

In 1993, Kasagi discovered the anomalous yield of 3 deuteron fusion reaction while searching the branching ratio of d+d fusion at low energy. In 1995-1997, Takahashi carefully studied this anomalous yield of 3 deuteron fusion reaction again. Distinct from the early Kasagi's study, Takahashi studied another 3 deuteron fusion channel: i.e. d+d+d → t (4.75MeV) + 3He (4.75MeV). Because only 2 nuclear products were emitted from this reaction channel, triton and helium-3 were clearly identified by their energy. From this information, Takahashi estimated the life-time of the 2 deuteron (2-d) resonance. It was in the order of 10 5 seconds. In this paper, selective resonant tunneling model was applied to calculate the life-time of this 2-d resonance inside the deuterated titanium. A square-well is assumed for the nuclear well, and a Coulomb repulsive potential is assumed for the long range interaction between two deuterons. The Coulomb potential is down shifted to include the electron- metal-screening. The lattice confined deuteron may bounce back and forth inside the lattice well. This may be called as the resonance which will greatly enhance the fusion reaction rate inside the nuclear well. An imaginary part of nuclear potential is introduced to describe this fusion rate. The calculated 2-d resonance lifetime, 10 5 seconds, agrees with Kasagi's and Takahashi's experimental data.    

9:12 - 9:24 a.m.


Low Energy Nuclear Reactions: 2007 Update
Steven B. Krivit

This paper presents an overview of low energy nuclear reactions, a subset of the field of condensed matter nuclear science. Condensed matter nuclear science studies nuclear effects in and/or on condensed matter, including low energy nuclear reactions, an entirely new branch of science that gained widespread attention and notoriety beginning in 1989 with the announcement of a previously unrecognized source of energy by Martin Fleischmann and Stanley Pons that came to be known as cold fusion. Two branches of LENR are recognized. The first includes a set of reactions like those observed by Fleischmann and Pons that use palladium and deuterium and yield excess heat and helium-4. Numerous mechanisms have been proposed to explain these reactions, however there is no consensus for, or general acceptance of, any of the theories. The claim of fusion is still considered speculative and, as such, is not an ideal term for this work. The other branch is a wide assortment of nuclear reactions that may occur with either hydrogen or deuterium. Anomalous nuclear transmutations are reported that involve light as well as heavy elements. The significant questions that face this field of research are: 1) Are LENRs a genuine nuclear reaction? 2) If so, is there a release of excess energy? 3) If there is, is the energy release cost-effective?     

9:24 - 9:36 a.m.


Physics in a Many-Centered Environment
Talbot A. Chubb

Physics in a many-center environment was born as the electron physics of metals. Electrons moving from the electrolyte of a battery to anode metal become quasi-particles with a many-centers geometry. The Ion Band State Theory of cold fusion assumes that a fraction of the deuterons in PdD x reconfigure to a many-centers geometry. Many-center geometry seems to apply to deuteron populations in nano-metal crystals as studied by Arata and Zhang, to Bloch-sensitive nuclei created in Iwamura's permeation studies, to the metastable nuclei forming alpha shower flakes as discovered by Oriani and Fisher and reproducibly produced by P. Mosier-Boss. 

9:36 - 9:48 a.m.


Heat Produced During Electrolysis with a Tubular Pd Cathode
Wu-Shou Zhang, John Dash, Qiongshu Wang

An explosion occurred during electrolysis of heavy water with a tubular Pd cathode. A Pd tube from the same batch was used as the cathode during electrolysis in a Seebeck envelope calorimeter which is capable of accurate heat measurements. Data was obtained first from a three cm length of the tube on one end, and then from a three cm length on the opposite end. There were no explosions, but both ends of the tube produced continuous excess thermal power (356 mW +/- 11 mW maximum). In addition there were 39 heat bursts (1.1 W maximum) from the first end during 201 hours of electrolysis and 58 heat bursts (1 W maximum) during 443 hours of electrolysis from the opposite end of the tube. The period of the heat bursts ranged from a few minutes to 3.3 hours. Data on the topography and microchemical composition of the tube surface before and after electrolysis will also be presented.   

Session B31: Cold Fusion II
Sponsoring Unit: Division of Condensed Matter Physics
Chair: Edmund Storms
Location: Colorado Convention Center – 401
Date/Time: Monday, March 5, 2007, 11:15 a.m. – 1:15 p.m.

11:15 - 11:27 a.m.


Future Power Production by LENR with Thin-Film Electrodes
George H. Miley, Heinz Hora, Andrei Lipson, Nie Luo, P. Joshi. Shrestha

PdD cluster reaction theory was recently proposed to explain a wide range of Low energy Nuclear Reaction (LENR) experiments. If understood and optimized, cluster reactions could lead to a revolutionary new power source of nuclear energy. The route is two-fold. First, the excess heat must be obtained reproducibly and over extended run times. Second, the percentage of excess must be significantly (order of magnitude or more) higher than the 20-50% typically today. The thin film methods described here have proven to be quite reproducible, e.g. providing excess heat of 20-30% in nine consecutive runs of several weeks each. However, mechanical separation of the films occurs over long runs due to the severe mechanical stresses created. Techniques to overcome these problems are possible using graded bonding techniques similar to that used in high temperature solid oxide fuel cells. Thus the remaining key issue is to increase the excess heat. The cluster model provides import insight into this. 

11:27 - 11:39 a.m.


Engineering of Condensed Matter Nuclear Physics: Heterodyne Behavior in Condensed Matter Nuclear Systems
Mitchell R. Swartz

Previously, we reported methods to semi-quantitatively measure and control tardive thermal power (TTP) which develops long after the termination of electric input power in condensed matter high-deuteron-flux Phusor devices providing (Pt/D2O/Pd; ~0.5 cm 3) peak excess power ratios circa 2.30+/-.84. Now we report one method to improve excess energy using heterodyned CMN systems using both normal and TTD operation - heterodyne operation (that is, ‘hetero' for other, and ‘dyne' for power). By augmenting the conventional excess energy produced by CMN active systems (normal operation) with the additional energy (“other power'') resulting from the time integral of TTP (“heat after death''), the net time-integrated excess energy (output energy beyond that applied as the input energy) is greater than we have previously reported and may be maximized using TTD drive techniques. Initial experiments of heterodyned active samples, capable of excess heat operation at the optimal operating point, have yielded excess energy increases of up to four times beyond that obtained without heterodyned operation. 

11:39 - 11:51 a.m.


Maruhn-Greiner Maximum for Confirmation of Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENR) via a Compound Nucleus with Double Magic Numbers
Heinrich Hora, George Miley

One of the most convincing facts about LENR due to deuterons (ds) or protons of very high concentration in host metals of palladium is the measurement of the large scale minimum in the reaction probability with product elements centered around the nucleon number A = 153. The local maximum was measured in this region is similar to fission of uranium at A = 119 where the local maximum follows the Maruhn-Greiner mechanism. We suggest this phenomenon can be explained by the strong screening of the Maxwellian ds on the degenerate rigid electron background within the swimming electrons at the metal surface or thin film interfaces. The deuterons behave like neutrals at distances of above 2 picometers (pm) and form clusters due to soft attraction in the range of thermal energy; 10 pm diameter clusters can react over long time scales (10 6 s) with Pd leading to double magic number compound nuclei 306x126 decaying via fission to an A=153 element distribution.     

11:51 a.m. - 12:03 p.m.


The Science of Low Energy Nuclear Reactions
Edmund Storms

The large literature describing the anomalous behavior attributed to cold fusion or low energy nuclear reactions has been critically described in a recently published book. Over 950 publications are evaluated allowing the phenomenon to be understood. A new class of nuclear reactions has been discovered that are able to generate practical energy without significant radiation or radioactivity. 

12:03 - 12:15 p.m.


Time Resolved, High Resolution Gamma Ray and Integrated Charged and Knock-on Particle Measurements of a Pd:D
Co-deposition Cell
Lawrence P.G. Forsley, Gary Phillips, Jay Khim, Pamela Mosier-Boss, Frank Gordon, Stanislaw Szpak

Time resolved, with a 10 second interval, high resolution gamma ray measurements using a high efficiency cryogenically cooled gamma ray detector have been taken simultaneously with a CR-39 integrating charged particle detector on a series of experiments in conjunction with the Navy SPAWAR Pd:D co-deposition cell. These results include anomalous, coincident, gamma ray emissions from witness materials in the cell in conjunction with the CR-39 data. There is evidence of a variety of knock-on particles as well. The copious data, exceeding 10,000 tracks/mm2, offers a means to distinguish among various condensed matter nuclear science theories.     

12:15 - 12:27 p.m.


Two-level systems and a low-energy oscillator: Excitation transfer and energy exchange
Peter Hagelstein, Irfan Chaudhary

We first consider one set of matched two-level systems that are coupled to an oscillator with an energy much lower than that of the two-level systems. We show that energy can be exchanged between the two systems coherently, illustrating the effect both with the results of a direct numerical calculation, and also with an analytic result. We then show that excitation can be transferred between two sets of two-level systems that are coupled indirectly through a low-energy oscillator. We illustrate the effect with a direct numerical calculation, and also with an analytic result. Finally, both of these effects are significantly enhanced when energetic loss channels are open to the oscillator. This is illustrated with numerical and analytic calculations.     

12:27 - 12:39 p.m.


Material Science Developments Enhancing Excess of Power Reproducibility
V. Violante, M. Bertolotti, E. Castagna, M. McKubre, F. Sarto,
C. Sibilia, F. Tanzella, T. Zilov

Material science research activities have been carried out in order to increase the reproducibility of the excess of power production during electrochemical loading of palladium with deuterium. In the past broad work was developed to obtain a metallurgical structure of the palladium able to ensure a significant loading of deuterium above the threshold of 0.95 (D/Pd atomic fraction). It was observed that the high loading of the Pd cathode with deuterium was a necessary condition to have the occurrence of the excess of power production. The more recent work was mainly oriented to optimize the material properties in order to have a significant improvement of the reproducibility of the excess of power. During the last campaign of experiments more than 50% of the experienced cathodes produced excess of heat ranging from 30% up to more than 100% of the input.  

12:39 - 12:51 p.m.


Quantization of Differences Between Atomic and Nuclear Rest Masses and Self-organization of Atoms and Nuclei
F.A. Gareev, I.E. Zhidkova

We come to the conclusion that all atomic models based on either the Newton equation and the Kepler laws, or the Maxwell equations, or the Schrodinger and Dirac equations are in reasonable agreement with experimental data. We can only suspect that these equations are grounded on the same fundamental principle(s) which is (are) not known or these equations can be transformed into each other. We proposed a new mechanism of LENR: cooperative processes in the whole system – nuclei + atoms + condensed matter - nuclear reactions in plasma - can occur at smaller threshold energies than the corresponding ones on free constituents. We were able to quantize phenomenologically the first time the differences between atomic and nuclear rest masses by the formula: δδM =n 1/n 2 X 0.0076294 (in MeV/ c 2), n i=1,2,3,.... Note that this quantization rule is justified for atoms and nuclei with different A, N and Z and the nuclei and atoms represent a coherent synchronized systems - a complex of coupled oscillators (resonators). The cooperative resonance synchronization mechanisms can explain how electron volt (atomic-) scale processes can induce and control nuclear MeV (nuclear-) scale processes and reactions. 

12:51 - 1:03 p.m.


Anomalous Nuclear Phenomena Associated with Ultrafast Processes
Xingliu Jiang, Xiaoping Zhou, Lijun Han, Liyin Wang

Localized nuclear reactions on the tips of the surface of electrodes in electrolysis cells have been observed by using solid detectors CR-39 and autoradiography in our laboratory at the period of May, 1989. A physical model of transient vortex dynamics with torsion coherence with the zero point energy has been proposed by Xingliu Jiang based on the ultrafast processes of triple phases area of tip effect on the electrode surface. Considering the large equivalent capacitance of electrochemical double layer, it is presumed that the double layer can exhibit nonlinear electrical response with spatial and temporal variations confined to microscopic areas by tip effect. Recent work reveals that nuclear reactions which usually occur at the field of high energy states, could be created in the systems of far from equilibrium with nonlinear behavior at room temperature. Our current understanding of science is like a puzzle with a large missing piece-zero point energy.  

1:03 - 1:15 p.m.


Search for Charged Particle Tracks Using CR-39 Detectors to Replicate the SPAWAR Pd/D External Field Co-Deposition Protocol
Winthrop Williams

A solution of 0.031 M PdCl2 and 0.30 M LiCl in D2O was electrolyzed between Pt anode and Ag cathode wires at currents ranging from 100 microamps to 100 milliamps in two similar series-connected plastic butyrate cells. Pd and D were co- deposited onto the Ag cathodes. CR-39 detectors adjacent to the Ag cathode wires were used to search for charged particle tracks in each cell. An external magnetic field was applied to one of the two cells. Throughout the experiment, ambient temperature, current through and voltage across each cell were monitored. Current was applied in a stepped fashion, starting at 0.1mA increasing by factors of 2 to 5 up to 100mA.