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American Chemical Society Symposium Series: Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions and New Energy Technologies Sourcebook (Vol. 2)

Jan Marwan, Editor and Author of Preface
Dr. Marwan Chemie

Steven Krivit, Editor and Author of Introduction
New Energy Times, Editor

Sponsored by the
ACS Division of Environmental Chemistry, Inc.
American Chemical Society, Washington, DC
Online Purchase from ACS

American Chemical Society Symposium Series: Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions and New Energy Technologies Sourcebook (Vol. 2), Marwan, Jan and Krivit, Steven B., editors, American Chemical Society/Oxford University Press, Washington, D.C.,

ISBN13: 9780841224544
eISBN: 9780841224629
DOI: 10.1021/bk-2009-1029
(Electronic: Dec. 20, 2009, Print: Oct. 15, 2010)

 

From the Preface (Jan Marwan)

Low-energy nuclear reaction research is unlike thermonuclear fusion research. Many publications report on various LENR methods by which nuclear reactions are produced and demonstrated at room temperature. The experimental methods to demonstrate these phenomena range from the use of gunpowder and laser techniques to the attempt to electrochemically induce nuclear fusion and fission and create significant excess heat within the palladium or nickel metal lattice exposed to a deuterium- or hydrogen-containing solution.

From the Introduction (Steven B. Krivit)

Low-Energy Nuclear Reactions and New Energy Technologies Sourcebook Volume 2 communicates recent exemplary work in low-energy nuclear reaction and new energy technology research.

This book is by no means a complete reference for the extensive work that has been performed in these fields. However, taken in the context of other volumes, it is a reliable resource and broad reference tool.

This sourcebook continues the presentation of some of the best experimental and theoretical research in the LENR field. As well, this volume includes another novel area of nuclear energy research, bubble nuclear fusion.

The evidence for a new class of inexpensive nuclear energy research topics is now unambiguous, though its road to recognition has been a bit slow, bumpy and, at times, treacherous for its intrepid explorers.


About the Editors
Jan Marwan, who built up his own research laboratory in Berlin, Germany, to deeply investigate cold fusion processes, is a specialized electrochemist and focused his research on the electrochemical properties of metal hydride systems.

Steven B. Krivit is the editor of the New Energy Times online magazine and Executive Director of New Energy Institute. He has been the lead journalist investigating the LENR field since 2000.

 

Front Matter
Preface -- Jan Marwan (Sponsored Access) p. ix-xi
Introduction -- Steven B. Krivit (Sponsored Access) p.3-5
Review Papers - Abstracts

Biberian, Jean-Paul, "Low Energy Nuclear Reactions in Gas Phase: A Comprehensive Review," p. 9-34

Low energy nuclear reactions have been demonstrated experimentally mainly through electrochemical experiments. However, a great deal of work has been performed in gas phase. The existence of anomalous excess heat, production of neutrons, tritium, helium-4 and helium-3 as well as the existence of transmutation of elements has been shown by many experimentalists. This chapter reviews all the work that has been done during the past 20 years in low energy nuclear reactions in gas phase.

Srinivasan, Mahadeva, "Wide-Ranging Studies on the Emission of Neutrons and Tritium by LENR Configurations: An Historical Review of the Early BARC Results," p. 35-57

On receipt of news of the Fleischmann-Pons announcement in March 1989, scientists loaded samples of Pd and Ti metal with deuterium using both electrolytic methods and gas/plasma-based absorption techniques. Twelve research groups and 50 scientists were involved in this massive effort. Clear evidence was accumulated for the generation of neutrons and tritium. Not only was the rate of neutron emission measured, but also, in some cases, a sophisticated analysis of the stastistical characteristics of neutron emission was carried out. The most important findings were: (a) Tritium production is much more probable than neutrons, with the neutron to tritium yield ratio being ~ 10-7; (b) A fraction of the neutrons released is in the form of bursts of tens to hundreds of simultaneously emitted neutrons; and (c) The nuclear reactions responsible for the production of these seem to be occurring in highly localized hot spots in the host metal. These results strongly suggest the possible occurrence of some type of micro-nuclear explosions in selected lattice sites.

LENR Experiments

Dash, John, Wang, Qiongshu and Silver, David Samuel, "Excess Heat and Anomalous Isotopes and Isotopic Ratios From the Interaction of Palladium With Hydrogen Isotopes," p. 61-80

Surface studies of 40 μm thick Pd foils after electrolysis in D2O / H2SO4 electrolyte for six minutes found inversions in isotopic ratios. Anomalous isotopes and isotopic ratios were also found on the surface of a 350 μm thick Pd foil which produced excess heat during electrolysis in a similar electrolyte. Further research is necessary to establish the reproducibility of these results.

Letts, Dennis, Cravens, Dennis and Hagelstein, Peter L., "Dual Laser Stimulation and Optical Phonons in Palladium Deuteride," p. 81-93

In work done in 2007, we observed that two laser beams irradiating a deuterated palladium cathode at a single spot induced significant thermal increases many times larger than those expected from laser heating alone. This effect was observed only when the lasers were tuned to produce a beat frequency near 8 THz, 15 THz and 20 THz. These preliminary experiments support the conjecture that optical phonons are involved in the heat-producing mechanism (THz = 1012 Hz).

In recent experiments, results from more than 20 runs appear to confirm the three thermally sensitive frequencies at 8, 15 and 20 THz. Further, the experiments allowed us to produce an initial thermal response spectrum.

Lipson, Andrei, Chernov, Ivan, Roussetski, Alexei, Chеrdantsev, Yuri, Tsivadze, Aslan, Lyakhov, Boris, Saunin, Eugeny and Melich,Michael, "Hot Deuteron Generation and Charged Particle Emissions on Excitation of Deuterium Subsystem in Metal Deuterides," p. 95-117

Statistically significant emissions of DD-reaction products, 3 MeV protons and high-energy alpha particles (11-20 MeV) were observed in specially prepared Pd/PdO:Dx and TiDx targets in vacuum, stimulated by electron beam (J ~ 0.6 mA/cm2, U = 30 keV). These charge particles' energies and identities were determined using a set of CR-39 detectors covered with various metal foils. In contrast, the Pd/PdO:Dx and the TiDx samples show no sign of nuclear emissions in vacuum without e-beam stimulation. Extrapolation of both DD-reaction cross section and the enhancement factor (consistent with a calculated screening potential Ue = 750 eV) to very low deuteron energy satisfactorily describes the detected DD-reaction yield in Pd/PdO:Dx targets, under the assumption of hot deuteron (<Ed> ~ 3.0 eV) generation under e-beam bombardment. This result strongly supports the theoretical prediction (1, 2) for electron excitation of the Dsubsystem in Pd- deuterides.

Mosier-Boss, Pamela A., Gordon, Frank E. and Forsley, Lawrence P.G. , "Characterization of Energetic Particles Emitted During Pd/D Co-Deposition for Use in a Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG)," p. 119-135

CR-39 is a solid-state nuclear-track etch detector. Using these detectors in Pd/D co-deposition experiments, researchers have detected energetic particles and neutrons. The source of these particles and neutrons is the cathode. In this communication, spacer experiments and track modeling are done to characterize the energetic particles emitted. The potential use of these energetic particles to power a RTG is discussed.

Acoustic Experiments

Taleyarkhan, Rusi P., West,Colin D., Lahey, Jr., Richard T., Nigmatulin, Robert I., Block, Robert C., Cho, JaSeon S. and Xu, Yiban, "Recent Advances and Results in Acoustic Inertial Confinement Bubble Nuclear Fusion," p. 139-157

This paper provides an update on developments since the first announcement of the discovery in 2002 of acoustic inertial confinement (a.k.a bubble) nuclear fusion. A theoretical foundation for the supercompression of acoustically driven deuterated bubble clusters has been developed and published. Initially, bubble fusion experiments used external neutron sources for nucleating bubble clusters, and despite compelling evidence, lingering doubts remained because of the use of external neutrons to maintain neutron production. This was overcome using a self-nucleation method. In those novel experiments, seeding of nanometer bubbles was accomplished using nuclear-decay recoils from dissolved uranyl nitrate. Bubble fusion experiments have been replicated successfully, and confirmatory results were reported at least five times since 2005. Moreover, speculations and controversies about the discovery related to our bubble fusion experiments have now been conclusively addressed, rebutted, and dismissed.

Stringham Roger S., "Sonofusion, Deuterons to Helium Experiments," p. 159-173

Experimentally, heat and 4He are generally the byproducts of sonofusion. Sonofusion uses the leverage of argon-saturated cavitation-induced D2O bubbles and their collapse to transient high-energy density jets to implant deuteron clusters into a target lattice matrix. The coherent electromagnetic environment within these transient clusters produces deuteron fusion events. Mass spectra and calorimetric measurements of the fusion products are described. What has been increasingly evident in sonofusion is the parallel that exists between sonofusion and high-density experiments of inertial confined fusion (1), Bose-Einstein condensates, astrophysical phenomena, and muon fusion. All of these help to explain our ecological fusion results.

LENR Theories

Chubb, Scott R., "Overcoming the Coulomb Barrier and Related Effects Through Resonant Electrodynamics and Quantum Mechanics in the Fleischmann-Pons Excess Heat Effect," p. 177-192

Science requires measurements. Interpreting measurements involves recognizing patterns. How this happens is intimately related to the instruments that are used and how the measurements are performed. Abstractly, this can be viewed in a somewhat radical way: Nature is telling us something, but how we interpret it involves how we understand what Nature is telling us. An important point is that, for communication to take place, involving real-life experiences, electromagnetism is required. In higher-energy environments, how this takes place can be inferred in an approximate manner, in which changes in electromagnetism, as a function of time, can be treated as being independent of time. In solids, when many particles are allowed to interact, this assumption is not required, and this can lead to important consequences. This alternative perspective can explain how the Fleischmann-Pons effect can take place.

Takahashi, Akito, "The Basics of Deuteron-Cluster Dynamics as Shown by a Langevin Equation," p. 193-217

Pertaining to quantum mechanics, the basics of a new approach using the stochastic differential equation (the Langevin equation) are written for quantifying the dynamic motion of known molecules as D2+, D2 and D3+ as well as the D-atom state. The role of Platonic symmetry in these known molecules is discussed for deducing a simple one-dimensional (Rdd dependent; here Rdd is the distance between the nearest d-d pair) Langevin equation and using quantum-mechanical ensemble averaging to obtain an equation for expectation value. The methodology is applied for more complicated D-clusters such as 4D/TSC and 6D/OSC, which would keep Platonic symmetry by introducing the force fluctuation deviating from ideal Platonic symmetry. Time-dependent TSC and OSC trapping potentials, which take balance to get back to Platonic symmetry from the distorted states, were defined and used for a numerical solution of the Langevin equation.

Hora, Heinrich, Ghahramani, Nader, Miley, George H., Ghanaatian,Mahmoud, Hooshmand, Mahmoud, Philberth, Karl and Osman, Frederick "Quark-Gluon Model for Magic Numbers Related to Low Energy Nuclear Reactions," p. 219-234

A new three-fold symmetry is presented for derivation of the magic numbers of nuclei and is compared with the model based on the Boltzmann distribution from the standard abundance distribution (SAD) of nuclei in the universe in the endothermic branch. This results in a 3n relation leading to the motivation to explore the quark state in nuclei. But this is in contrast (duality) to the fact that the confinement of nuclei by a generalized Debye layer can be based only on a nucleon, not on a quark structure. This Debye model result led to a change in the Fermi energy of the nucleons into the relativistic range at higher-than-nuclear density, resulting in a mass independent state at higher-than-nuclear densities for the quark state in neutron stars. This result and the 3n-relation motivated consideration of the quark state in nuclei. Success is reported by quark-like statistics for nuclei reproducing magic numbers up to 126, identical with the Boltzmann model. But for the next-higher number, the Boltzmann model definitely arrives at 180, while the new quark-like model leads to the number 184. The paradox may be solved by accurate measurements of a local Maruhn-Greiner maximum from low energy nuclear reactions (LENR).

Miley, George H., Hora, Heinrich, Philberth, Karl, Lipson, Andrei and Shrestha, Prajakti J., "Radiochemical Comparisons on Low Energy Nuclear Reactions and Uranium," p. 235-252

The discovery of nuclear fission by Otto Hahn and Friedrich Strassmann was based on a very rare microanalytical result that provided the first realization that neutrons could fission uranium. However, this was only the beginning of many discoveries about this complex process. An analogy related to the discovery of low energy nuclear reactions (LENRs) is noted here. It is remarkable that the reaction product distribution measured in LENR experiments using thin-film palladium/nickel electrodes heavily loaded with either hydrogen or deuterium has a strong similarity to the element distribution from uranium fission. Thus, the LENR reaction process is hypothesized to pass through a heavy complex nucleus similar to the fission process in uranium. Further, a detailed structure is observed in the LENR distribution corresponding to the Maruhn-Greiner local maximum of the distribution within the large-scale minimum of the fission product distribution curve. This observation leads to the proposed explanation that the fissioning compound nucleus in the LENR case is element 306X126 with double magic numbers. A major difference, however, is that in uranium fission the compound nucleus arises after single-neutron absorption, whereas in LENR a multi-body process is needed to create the heavy complex nucleus. Indeed, subsequent analysis of the various observations associated with these LENR experiments suggests that the multi-body reaction involved follows from the formation of Bose-Einstein condensed clusters formed in dislocation void regions in the electrode. Consequences and proposed future studies based on this cluster conjecture are discussed.

Srivastava, Yogendra N., Widom, Alan and Larsen, Lewis "A Primer for Electro-Weak Induced Low Energy Nuclear Reactions," p. 253-270

In a series of papers, cited in the main body of the paper below, detailed calculations have been presented which show that electromagnetic and weak interactions can induce low energy nuclear reactions to occur with observable rates for a variety of processes. A common element in all these applications is that the electromagnetic energy stored in many relatively slow-moving electrons can, under appropriate circumstances, be collectively transferred into fewer, much faster electrons with energies sufficient for the latter to combine with protons (or deuterons, if present) to produce neutrons through weak interactions. The produced neutrons can then initiate low energy nuclear reactions through further nuclear transmutations. The aim of this paper is to extend and enlarge on various examples analyzed previously, present simplified order-of-magnitude estimates for each and illuminate a common unifying theme among them.